Pietro Lura: Catalogue data in Autumn Semester 2017
|Name||Prof. Dr. Pietro Lura|
|Telephone||044 823 41 35|
|Department||Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering|
|101-0615-01L||Materials III||4 credits||4P||R. J. Flatt, I. Burgert, P. Lura, H. Richner, F. Wittel|
|Abstract||Introduction into the basic and practical knowledge of important building materials and testing methods.|
|Objective||Introduction into the basic and practical knowledge of important building materials and testing methods.|
|Content||o Introduction of material testing equipment, with various examples of experiments on metals (tensile behaviour, hardness, bending and impact loading).|
o Theoretical background and practical aspects of concrete technology: mixture design, casting and setting; determination of mechanical properties.
o Properties of bricks and mortar: individual materials and the composite brickwork. Parameters like strength, Young’s modulus, water absorption and thermal conductivity are determined.
o Understanding the characteristic properties of wood: anisotropy, hygroscopic behaviour, shrinkage and swelling, and effect of size on strength. Introduction to test-methods for wood and wood-products.
o Introduction into the basics of scanning electron microscopy: practical exercises with the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM).
o Introduction to fundamentals of Finite Element Methods and their application in examples.
o Introduction to durability of building materials and building structures: assessment of potentials for detecting and locating corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete.
|Lecture notes||For each topic a script will be provided, that can be downloaded under www.ifb.ethz.ch/education|
|101-0689-00L||Shrinkage and Cracking of Concrete: Mechanisms and Impact on Durability||3 credits||2V||P. Lura, M. Wyrzykowski|
|Abstract||Concrete is generally viewed as a durable construction material. However, the long-term performance of a concrete structure can be greatly compromised by early-age cracking. This course will explain how shrinkage of concrete leads to cracking and how control of shrinkage allows increasing the expected durability of a concrete structure.|
|Objective||This course will begin with a brief introduction about hydration and microstructure development in cement paste and concrete. The students will learn the main causes of cracking at early ages, namely plastic, drying, thermal and autogenous shrinkage, with special emphasis on the driving mechanisms. The importance of concrete curing, especially in the first few days after casting, will be stressed and explained. Building on the knowledge of the driving forces of shrinkage, the way of action of shrinkage-reducing admixtures will be clarified and different applications illustrated. As an extension of external curing, the students will become familiar with internal water curing by means of saturated lightweight aggregates and superabsorbent polymers.|
Most concrete members are restrained by adjacent structures. When shrinkage is restrained, cracks may develop. The students will learn how to apply different criteria for assessing concrete cracking and how to retrieve the mechanical properties of the concrete, especially stiffness and creep, relevant for the calculations.
In addition to macroscopic cracks, microcracking may occur in the cement paste due to inner restraint offered by the aggregates. Both macroscopic cracks and diffuse microcracking within a concrete may facilitate the ingress of harmful substances (e.g. chloride and sulfate ions) into the concrete; these may react with the concrete or with the reinforcement and create further deterioration. The students will acquire an understanding of the mechanisms of transport through cracked concrete, with special focus on experimental evidence and on techniques able to visualize the transport process and follow it in time.
As a final outcome of the course, the students will be able to estimate the impact of cracking on the expected durability of concrete structures and to implement different types of measures to reduce the extent of cracking.
|Content||Concrete is generally viewed as a long-lasting construction material. However, the durability of a concrete structure can be jeopardized by shrinkage-induced cracking. In addition to being unsightly, cracks have the potential to act as weak planes for further distress or as conduits for accelerated ingress of aggressive agents that may reduce durability. |
Advances in concrete technology over the past decades have led to the practical use of concrete with a low water to binder ratio and with different types of mineral and organic admixtures. Another recent development is self-compacting concrete, which avoids concrete vibration and reduces labor during placing. Unfortunately, these concretes are especially prone to cracking at an early age, unless special precautions are taken. Proper curing becomes in this case the key to achieve better performance in various environmental and load conditions.
Specific topics covered by the course:
- Hydration and microstructure development
- Plastic shrinkage
- Development of mechanical properties
- Thermal deformation
- Autogenous deformation
- Drying shrinkage
- Creep and relaxation
- Shrinkage-reducing admixtures
- Internal curing: saturated lightweight aggregates and superabsorbent polymers
- Fracture and microcracking
- Transport in cracked concrete
- Impact of cracking on concrete durability
- Self-healing of cracks
|Lecture notes||For each lecture, lecture notes will be provided. In addition, one or two research papers for each lecture will be indicated as supportive information.|
|Literature||Copies of one to two research papers relevant to the topic of each lecture will be provided to the students as supportive information.|
|Prerequisites / Notice||A basic knowledge of concrete technology is preferable.|