Christian Bogdal: Catalogue data in Autumn Semester 2016
|Name||Dr. Christian Bogdal|
Umwelt- und Sicherheitstechnologie
ETH Zürich, HCI G 136
|Department||Environmental Systems Science|
|529-0037-01L||Introduction to Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology||4 credits||3G||K. Fenner, C. Bogdal, J. Hollender|
|Abstract||Production and use of chemicals also introduces them into the environment. This course introduces chemistry students to environmental chemistry, ecotoxicology and trace analysis. |
Partitioning behavior and reactions of organic pollutants in the environment. Biodegradation, bioavailabiliy and bioaccumulation. Ecotoxicological effects at the molecular level. Aspects of chemical trace analysis.
* The students develop an understanding of the processes that govern the fate and effects of chemicals in the environment.
* The students know a number of methods for estimating the fate and effect of environmental pollutants. They recognize the relevant processes affecting a given compound and know how to use appropriate estimation methods for their quantification.
|Content||Part I: Fate of Chemicals in the Environment:|
Relevant environmental compartments and how chemicals reach the environment.
Overview on partitioning and transformation processes of chemicals in the environment.
Partitioning in the environment:
o Meaning of vapor pressure, water solubility and air-water partition coefficient for environmental behavior
o Octanol-water partition coefficient as surrogate for partitioning into biological systems
o Influence of temperature and pH on partitioning
o Global distribution of semi-volatile chemicals
o Molecular interactions that govern partitioning
o Sorption to natural surfaces, partitioning into natural organic matter
Chemical and photochemical transformation reactions
Microbial transformation processes in the environment
Part II: Effects of chemicals in the environment
Biological test systems for assessing ecotoxicological effects
Endpoints of toxicity assessment:
o Acute and chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction
o Dose-response modeling
Bioavailability and bioaccumulation:
o Bioconcentration, biomagnification, food chain accumulation
o Active and passive uptake mechanisms
Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics:
o Metabolism and transformation reactions of pollutants in organisms, phase I and II transformations
o Detoxification, active excretion
Molecular mechanisms of toxicity in cells:
o Baseline toxicity
o Specific toxicity (Examples: Inhibition of photosynthesis, neurotoxicity, including AchEsterase, ion channels etc.)
o Oxidative stress
Part III: Specific aspects of trace analysis in the environment (soil, water, air)
Planning of analytical strategy and sampling
Separation and detection
Quantification, screening for unknowns
|Lecture notes||Copies of the slides and some articles are distributed|
|Literature||R.P. Schwarzenbach, P.M. Gschwend, D.M. Imboden, Environmental Organic Chemistry, second edition, Wiley, 2003|
C.J. van Leeuwen, J.L.M. Hermens (Editoren), Risk Assessment of Chemicals: An Introduction, Kluwer, 1995
|529-0047-00L||Risk Assessment of Chemicals||7 credits||6A||C. Bogdal, K. Hungerbühler, N. von Götz, Z. Wang|
|Abstract||Projects on chemical assessment with the focus on the analysis and assessment of basic substance data for selected chemical classes; analysis and modelling of technical processes; characterisation of environmental and health risks. Risk assessment on the basis of quality and protection goals. Estimation of model and parameter uncertainty. Precaution and safety measures.|
|Objective||Project thesis (report) on chemicals assessment; time frame totals ca. 80 hours.|
|Content||Projects on chemical assessment with the focus on the following aspects:|
* Analysis and assessment of basic substance data for selected chemical classes: physical chemical properties, environmental behaviour (distribution, persistence), human and eco-toxicity (biochemical metabolism, effect mechanisms), safety.
* Analysis and modelling of technical processes determining chemical release into the environment, e.g., chemicals’ applications.
* Characterisation of environmental and health risks on the basis of exposure and effect models, QSARs from environmental chemistry, toxicology and methods of risk analysis.
* Risk assessment on the basis of quality and safety goals. Estimation of the model and data uncertainty.
* Demonstration of possibilities and limits of precaution and safety measures (technical, organisational, concerning personnel) including effectiveness and efficiency.
Project teaching; time frame totals ca. 80 hours.
|Lecture notes||See recommended literature.|
|Literature||Hungerbühler, K., Ranke, J., Mettier, T., Chemische Produkte und Prozesse, Springer, 1998. (ISBN 3-540-64854-2);|
Scheringer, M., Persistence and Spatial Range of Environmental Chemicals: New Ethical and Scientific Concepts for Risk Assessment, Wiley & Sons, 2002. (ISBN: 3-527-30527-0);
Schwarzenbach, R.P., Gschwend, P.M., Imbodem, D.M., Environmental Organic Chemistry, Second Edition, Wiley & Sons, 2003. (ISBN 0-471-35750-2);
van Leeuwen, C.J., Hermens, J.L.M., Risk Assessment of Chemicals: An Introduction, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995. (ISBN 0-7923-3740-9).
|Prerequisites / Notice||Voraussetzung: |
529-0580-00L - Risikoanalyse chemischer Prozesse und Produkte
oder: 701-0998-00L - Environmental and Human Health Risk Assessment of Chemicals
Beschränkt auf 6 Projektarbeiten pro Semester
|529-0699-00L||Safety and Environmental Technology of Chemical Processes and Products||0 credits||2S||K. Hungerbühler, C. Bogdal, E. Capón García, F. C. I. Meemken, M. Scheringer, N. von Götz, Z. Wang|
|Abstract||This course comprises a series of seminars on current topics regarding environmental impact and safety of chemical products and processes. Invited national and international speakers from public and industrial research institutions present their latest developments and applications, and show future trends.|
|Objective||Giving the students the opportunity to experience recent research progress at first hand; encouraging participation in discussions with speaker and audience.|