Ulrich Krieger: Catalogue data in Spring Semester 2016
|Name||Dr. Ulrich Krieger|
Institut für Atmosphäre und Klima
ETH Zürich, CHN O 18
|Telephone||+41 44 633 40 07|
|Department||Environmental Systems Science|
|701-0234-00L||Atmospheric Chemistry: Instruments and Measuring Techniques||1 credit||1V||U. Krieger|
|Abstract||Measuring Techniques: Environmental Monitoring, Trace Gas Detection, Remote Sensing, Aerosol Characterization, Techniques used in the laboratory.|
|Objective||Find out about the specific problems connected to composition measurements in the atmosphere. Working out criteria for selecting an optimal measuring strategy. Acquiring knowledge about different measuring methods their spectroscopic principles and of some specific instruments.|
|Content||Es werden Methoden und Geräte vorgestellt und theoretisch analysiert, die in atmosphärenchemischen Messungen Verwendung finden: Geräte zur Überwachung im Rahmen der Luftreinhalteverordnung, Spurengasanlysemethoden, "remote sensing", Aerosolmessgeräte, Messverfahren bei Labormessungen zu atmosphärischen Fragestellungen.|
|Literature||B. J. Finnlayson-Pitts, J. N. Pitts, "Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere", Academic Press, San Diego, 2000|
|Prerequisites / Notice||Methodenvorlesung zu den Praktika 701-0460-00 und 701-1230-00. Die Kontaktzeiten in diesen Praktika sind so abgestimmt, dass der (empfohlene) Besuch der Vorlesung möglich ist.|
Voraussetzungen: Atmosphärenphysik I und II
|701-0460-00L||Practical Training in Atmosphere and Climate |
Number of participants limited to 35.
|7 credits||14P||U. Krieger, M. Ammann, M. Böttcher, T. Peter|
|Abstract||The field course offers the opportunity to carry out atmospheric physical and chemical experiments. Students can acquire knowledge in experimental, instrumental, numerical or theoretical aspects of atmospheric sciences.|
|Objective||The learning target is the successful execution of interdisciplinary field work within the atmospheric sciences. To this end the participants will become acquainted with modern sounding and analysis methods, will collect data and will evaluate these with respect to the state of the atmosphere and the relevant processes of interest. Interdisciplinary team work will be practiced across various scientific fields (physics, chemistry, atmospheric dynamics and transport).|
|Prerequisites / Notice||Als Voraussetzung für dieses Praktikum werden Kenntnisse der folgenden Kurse benötigt:|
- 701-0471-00 Atmosphärenchemie
- 701-0473-00 Wettersysteme
- 251-0840-01 Anwendungsnahes Programmieren mit Matlab
Teilnehmer, die diese Kurse nicht belegt haben, müssen sich die erforderlichen Kenntnisse im Eigenstudium aneignen.
Als Begleitung zu diesem Praktikum wird der Besuch der folgenden Kurse sehr empfohlen:
- 701-0234-00 Messmethoden in der Atmosphärenchemie
- 701-1236-00 Messmethoden in der Meteorologie
|701-1238-00L||Advanced Field and Lab Studies in Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate |
Limited number of participants.
|3 credits||2P||U. Krieger|
|Abstract||In the course 701-0460-00 P we offer the opportunity to carry out atmospheric physical and chemical experiments. The present course will be held in connection with this practical course. An individual assignment of a specific topic will be made for interested students who can acquire knowledge in experimental, instrumental, or numerical aspects of atmospheric chemistry.|
|Objective||In the course 701-0460-00 P, Practical training in atmosphere and climate, we offer the opportunity to carry out atmospheric physical and chemical experiments. The present course will be held in connection with this practical course. An individual assignment of a specific topic will be made for interested students who can acquire knowledge in experimental, instrumental, numerical or theoretical aspects of atmospheric chemistry.|
This course is addressed to students who have not attended the practical course 701-0460-00 P during their Bachelor studies, but want to gain knowledge in field work connected to atmospheric chemistry. The specific topic to work on may be chosen based on individual interests and resources available.
|Prerequisites / Notice||It is mandatory for interested students to contact the instructor before the term starts, so that individual assignments can be made/planned for.|
The maximum number of participants for this course will be limited depending on resources available.
|701-1262-00L||Atmospheric Chemistry Lab Work||2.5 credits||5P||C. Marcolli, U. Krieger, T. Peter|
|Abstract||Experiments are carried out to investigate the freezing of water droplets and ice cloud formation. Water-in-oil emulsions are prepared and cooled in a DSC (differential scanning calorimeter). The measured freezing temperatures are put in context with cloud formation in the atmosphere.|
|Objective||This practical course offers the opportunity to get to know lab work on a topic of atmospheric importance.|
|Content||Cirrus clouds play an important role in the radiative budget of the Earth. Due to scattering and absorption of the solar as well as terrestrial radiation the cirrus cloud cover may influence significantly the Earth climate. How the cirrus clouds exactly form, is still unknown. Ice particles in cirrus clouds may form by homogeneous ice nucleation from liquid aerosols or via heterogeneous ice nucleation on solid ice nuclei (IN). The dihydrate of oxalic acid (OAD) acts as a heterogeneous ice nucleus, with an increase in freezing temperature between 2 and 5K depending on solution composition. In several field campaigns, oxalic acid enriched particles have been detected in the upper troposphere with single particle aerosol mass spectrometry. Simulations with a microphysical box model indicate that the presence of OAD may reduce the ice particle number density in cirrus clouds by up to ~50% when compared to exclusively homogeneous cirrus formation without OAD. |
The goal of this atmospheric chemistry lab work is to expand the knowledge about the influence of oxalic acid in different aqueous solution systems for the heterogeneous ice nucleation process. Experiments of emulsified aqueous solutions containing oxalic acid will be performed with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, TA Instruments Q10). Water-in-oil emulsions contain a high number of micrometer-sized water droplets. Each droplet freezes independently which allows the measurement of homogeneous freezing for droplets without heterogeneous IN and heterogeneous freezing in the presence of an IN. OAD is formed in-situ in a first freezing cycle and will act as an IN in a second freezing cycle. This experiment will be performed in the presence of different solutes. In general, the presence of a solute leads to a decrease of the freezing temperature. However, also more specific interactions with oxalic acid are possible so that e.g. the formation of OAD is inhibited.
In the atmospheric chemistry lab work experiments, emulsified aqueous oxalic acid solutions are prepared and investigated in the DSC during several freezing cycles. The onset of freezing is evaluated. Freezing onsets in the presence and absence of OAD are compared. This is done for pure oxalic acid solutions and oxalic acid solutions containing a second solute (e.g. another dicarboxylic acid). The quality of the emulsions is checked in an optical microscope.
|Lecture notes||Hand-outs will be distributed during the course|
|Literature||Oxalic acid as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in the upper troposphere and its indirect aerosol effect,|
B. Zobrist C. Marcolli, T. Koop, B. P. Luo, D. M. Murphy, U. Lohmann, A. A. Zardini, U. K. Krieger, T. Corti, D. J. Cziczo, S. Fueglistaler, P. K. Hudson, D. S. Thomson, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3115–3129, 2006.
|Prerequisites / Notice||This module may be attended by 8 students at most. Practical work is carried out in groups of 2, max. 3.|