751-4504-00L Plant Pathology I
|Semester||Autumn Semester 2016|
|Periodicity||yearly recurring course|
|Language of instruction||English|
|Abstract||Plant Pathology I will focus on pathogen-plant interactions, epidemiology, disease assessment, and disease development in agroecosystems. Themes will include: 1) how pathogens attack plants and; 2) how plants defend themselves against pathogens; 3) factors driving the development of epidemics in agroecosystems.|
|Objective||Students will understand: 1) how pathogens attack plants and; 2) how plants defend themselves against pathogens; 3) factors driving the development of epidemics in agroecosystems as a basis for implementing disease management strategies in agroecosystems.|
|Content||Course description: Plant Pathology I will focus on pathogen-plant interactions, epidemiology, disease assessment, and disease development in agroecosystems. Themes will include: 1) how pathogens attack plants and; 2) how plants defend themselves against pathogens; 3) factors driving the development of epidemics in agroecosystems. Topics under the first theme will include pathogen life cycles, disease cycles, and an overview of plant pathogenic nematodes, viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Topics under the second theme will include plant defense strategies, host range, passive and active defenses, and chemical and structural defenses. Topics under the third theme will include the disease triangle and cultural control strategies.|
Lecture Topics and Tentative Schedule
Week 1 No Lecture: First day of autumn semester
Week 2 The nature of plant diseases, symbiosis, parasites, mutualism, biotrophs and necrotrophs, disease cycles and pathogen life cycles. Nematode attack strategies and types of damage.
Week 3 Viral pathogens, classification, reproduction and transmission, attack strategies and types of damage. Examples TMV, BYDV, plum pox virus. Bacterial pathogens and phytoplasmas, classification, reproduction and transmission. Bacterial attack strategies and symptoms. Example bacterial diseases: fire blight, Agrobacterium crown gall, soft rots.
Week 4 Fungal pathogens, classification, growth and reproduction, sexual and asexual spores, transmission. Fungal life cycles, disease cycles, infection processes, colonization, phytotoxins and mycotoxins. Attack strategies of fungal necrotrophs and biotrophs.
Week 5 Symptoms and signs of fungal infection. Example fungal diseases: potato late blight, wheat stem rust, grape powdery mildew, wheat Septoria leaf blotch.
Week 6 Plant defense mechanisms, host range and non-host resistance. Passive structural and chemical defenses, preformed chemical defenses. Active structural defense, papillae, active chemical defense, hypersensitive response, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, phytoalexins and disease resistance.
Week 7 Pisatin and pisatin demethylase. Local and systemic acquired resistance, signal molecules.
Week 8 Pathogen effects on food quality and safety.
Week 9 Epidemiology: historical epidemics, disease pyramid, environmental effects on epidemic development. Plant effects on development of epidemics, including resistance, physiology, density, uniformity.
Week 10 Disease assessment: incidence and severity measures, keys, diagrams, scales, measurement errors. Correlations between incidence and severity.
Week 11 Molecular detection and diagnosis of pathogens. Host indexing, serology, monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. ELISA, PCR, rDNA and rep-PCR.
Week 12 Strategies for minimizing disease risks: principles of disease control and management.
Week 13 Disease control strategies: economic thresholds, physical control methods.
Week 14 Cultural control methods: avoidance, tillage practices, crop sanitation, fertilizers, crop rotation.
|Lecture notes||Detailed lecture notes (~160 pages) will be available for purchase at the cost of reproduction at the start of the semester.|