402-0674-00L Physics in Medical Research: From Atoms to Cells
|Semester||Autumn Semester 2016|
|Lecturers||B. K. R. Müller|
|Periodicity||yearly recurring course|
|Language of instruction||English|
|Abstract||Scanning probe and diffraction techniques allow studying activated atomic processes during early stages of epitaxial growth. For quantitative description, rate equation analysis, mean-field nucleation and scaling theories are applied on systems ranging from simple metallic to complex organic materials. The knowledge is expanded to optical and electronic properties as well as to proteins and cells.|
|Objective||The lecture series is motivated by an overview covering the skin of the crystals, roughness analysis, contact angle measurements, protein absorption/activity and monocyte behaviour.|
As the first step, real structures on clean surfaces including surface reconstructions and surface relaxations, defects in crystals are presented, before the preparation of clean metallic, semiconducting, oxidic and organic surfaces are introduced.
The atomic processes on surfaces are activated by the increase of the substrate temperature. They can be studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The combination with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) allows determining the sizes of the critical nuclei and the other activated processes in a hierarchical fashion. The evolution of the surface morphology is characterized by the density and size distribution of the nanostructures that could be quantified by means of the rate equation analysis, the mean-field nucleation theory, as well as the scaling theory. The surface morphology is further characterized by defects and nanostructure's shapes, which are based on the strain relieving mechanisms and kinetic growth processes.
High-resolution electron diffraction is complementary to scanning probe techniques and provides exact mean values. Some phenomena are quantitatively described by the kinematic theory and perfectly understood by means of the Ewald construction. Other phenomena need to be described by the more complex dynamical theory. Electron diffraction is not only associated with elastic scattering but also inelastic excitation mechanisms that reflect the electronic structure of the surfaces studied. Low-energy electrons lead to phonon and high-energy electrons to plasmon excitations. Both effects are perfectly described by dipole and impact scattering.
Thin-films of rather complex organic materials are often quantitatively characterized by photons with a broad range of wavelengths from ultra-violet to infra-red light. Asymmetries and preferential orientations of the (anisotropic) molecules are verified using the optical dichroism and second harmonic generation measurements. These characterization techniques are vital for optimizing the preparation of medical implants and the determination of tissue's anisotropies within the human body.
Cell-surface interactions are related to the cell adhesion and the contractile cellular forces. Physical means have been developed to quantify these interactions. Other physical techniques are introduced in cell biology, namely to count and sort cells, to study cell proliferation and metabolism and to determine the relation between cell morphology and function.
3D scaffolds are important for tissue augmentation and engineering. Design, preparation methods, and characterization of these highly porous 3D microstructures are also presented.
Visiting clinical research in a leading university hospital will show the usefulness of the lecture series.