402-0521-66L Modern Aspects in Surface Science Research: Techniques and Applications
|Kurzbeschreibung||The Course will treat the subjects of the crystal structure of bulk and surfaces, imaging surfaces with electrons and ions, general scanning probe microscopy methods, Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy, Atomic force microscopy, Electronic structure of the bulk and surfaces, Photoelectric emission, STM and AFM spectroscopy. The various techniques will be illustrated with examples from modern research.|
|Lernziel||It is the aim of this course to provide a review of modern aspects in surface science research.|
The course will start with an overview of the fundamentals of bulk crystals and a reminder on the x-ray diffraction from crystals. We will continue with the extension of the alphabet of bulk crystal structure to surfaces and the nomenclature of surface reconstructions and interesting structures like moiré patterns will be introduced. Following the two introductory weeks, we will dwell in to the realm of imaging the surfaces. We will start with electron beam based imaging and analysis techniques of surfaces. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM) will be discussed. Imaging with ion beam based techniques like Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) and He-ion microscopy will be touched upon. Following these, probe microscopy techniques will be explored starting with the topografiner and continuing with Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM). Basics of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) will follow. Imaging is a fundamental part of efforts on understanding surfaces. Yet, a through understanding and capability of generating and manipulating novel surface and interface systems can only be achieved by studying the electronic structure of surfaces. In order to investigate the electronic structure of surface and interface systems, a basic knowledge of the bulk electronic structure is necessary. So, introductory concepts on the electronic structure of the bulk and low dimensional systems will be discussed. Then, the basics of photoelectron emission form surfaces will be given. In the final two weeks of the course an overview of the spectroscopic modes of scanning probes and atomic scale electron spectroscopy will be introduced.
1) Introduction and reminder of bulk crystals (week 1):
Reminder of the crystal structure, x-ray diffraction and determination of the crystal structure.
2) Crystal surfaces (weeks 2 and 3):
Definitions, description of surfaces, and reconstructions; Moire patterns; quasi-crystals.
3) Imaging surfaces with electrons (week 4):
SEM, LEED, LEEM
4) Imaging surfaces with ions (week 5):
LEIS, He ion microscopy
5) Introduction to probe microscopy (week 6):
General problems , field ion microscope, topografiner
6) Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (weeks 6, 7 and 8):
Tunnelling problem (reminder), work function derivation and measurement with STM, imaging surfaces in real space, surface reconstructions, examples form metals and semiconductors and hybrid surface systems
7) Atomic force microscopy (week 9):
Technique, basics, examples.
8) Electronic structure of the bulk (week 10):
Reminders: density of states, band structure, low dimensional systems
9) Electronic structure of surfaces (week 11):
Bulk derived states, image states, examples from STM research
10) Photoelectric emission (week 12):
Basics of spectroscopy with x-rays and electrons.
11) STM and AFM derived spectroscopy techniques (weeks 13 and 14):
Comparative studies of Scanning Tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) to other integral spectroscopic methods.
|Literatur||1) John A. Venables, Introduction to Surface and Thin Film Processes, Cambridge University Press (2000)|
2) Hans Lüth, Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films (6th ed.), Springer (2010)
3) Andrew Zangwill , Physics at Surfaces, Cambridge University Press (1988)
4) Julian Chen, Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Oxford University Press (2016)
5) Bert Voigtlaender, Scanning Probe Microscopy: Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Springer (2015)
6) Charles Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (8th Ed.)
7) Neil W. Ashcroft and N. David Mermin, Solid State Physics
8) Harald Ibach and Hans Lüth, Solid-State Physics: An Introduction to Principles of Materials Science
9) Further reading material will be supplied.
|Voraussetzungen / Besonderes||At least, 4 homework will be assigned.|