402-0673-00L  Physics in Medical Research: From Humans to Cells

SemesterFrühjahrssemester 2021
DozierendeB. K. R. Müller
Periodizitätjährlich wiederkehrende Veranstaltung
LehrspracheEnglisch


KurzbeschreibungThe aim of this lecture series is to introduce the role of physics in state-of-the-art medical research and clinical practice. Topics to be covered range from applications of physics in medical implant technology and tissue engineering, through imaging technology, to its role in interventional and non-interventional therapies.
LernzielThe lecture series is focused on applying knowledge from physics in diagnosis, planning, and therapy close to clinical practice and fundamental medical research. Beside a general overview, the lectures give a deep insight into a very few selected techniques, which will help the students to apply the knowledge to a broad range of related techniques.

In particular, the lectures will elucidate the physics behind the X-ray imaging currently used in clinical environment and contemporary high-resolution developments. It is the goal to visualize and quantify (sub-)microstructures of human tissues and implants as well as their interface.

Ultrasound is not only used for diagnostic purposes but includes therapeutic approaches such as the control of the blood-brain barrier under MR-guidance.

Physicists in medicine are working on modeling and simulation. Based on the vascular structure in cancerous and healthy tissues, the characteristic approaches in computational physics to develop strategies against cancer are presented. In order to deliberately destroy cancerous tissue, heat can be supplied or extracted in different manner: cryotherapy (heat conductivity in anisotropic, viscoelastic environment), radiofrequency treatment (single and multi-probe), laser application, and proton therapy.

Medical implants play an important role to take over well-defined tasks within the human body. Although biocompatibility is here of crucial importance, the term is insufficiently understood. The aim of the lectures is the understanding of biocompatibility performing well-defined experiments in vitro and in vivo. Dealing with different classes of materials (metals, ceramics, polymers) the influence of surface modifications (morphology and surface coatings) are key issues for implant developments, which might be bio-inspired.

Mechanical stimuli can drastically influence soft and hard tissue behavior. The students should realize that a physiological window exists, where a positive tissue response is expected and how the related parameter including strain, frequency, and resting periods can be selected and optimized for selected tissues such as bone.

For the treatment of severe incontinence, we are developing artificial smart muscles. The students should have a critical look at promising solutions and the selection procedure as well as realize the time-consuming and complex way to clinical practice.

The course will be completed by relating the numerous examples and a common round of questions.
InhaltThis lecture series will cover the following topics:
Introduction: Imaging the human body down to individual cells and beyond
Development of artificial muscles for incontinence treatment
X-ray-based computed tomography in clinics and related medical research
High-resolution micro computed tomography
Phase tomography using hard X-rays in biomedical research
Metal-based implants and scaffolds
Natural and synthetic ceramics for implants and regenerative medicine
Biomedical simulations
Polymers for medical implants
From open surgery to non-invasive interventions - Physical approaches in medical imaging
Dental research
Focused Ultrasound and its clinical use
Applying physics in medicine: Benefitting patients
Skripthttp://www.bmc.unibas.ch/education/ETH_Zurich.phtml

login and password to be provided during the lecture
Voraussetzungen / BesonderesStudents from other departments are very welcome to join and gain insight into a variety of sophisticated techniques for the benefit of patients.
No special knowledge is required. Nevertheless, gaps in basic physical knowledge will require additional efforts.