From 2 November 2020, the autumn semester 2020 will take place online. Exceptions: Courses that can only be carried out with on-site presence.
Please note the information provided by the lecturers via e-mail.

Search result: Catalogue data in Autumn Semester 2016

Earth Sciences Master Information
Major in Geology
Compulsory Module in Analytical Methods in Earth Sciences
Students have to complete 6 credits in part A, and 6 credits in part B.
Part A: Microscopy Courses
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4045-00LMicroscopy of Metamorphic RocksW+2 credits2GP. Nievergelt
AbstractRepetition of methods using optic properties of crystals and the polarising microscope.
Identification of minerals and metamorphic parageneses.
Description and interpretation of microstructures.
Age relationship of crystallisation and deformation.
Estimation of metamorphic grade.
Objective- Advanced knowledge in optical mineralogy
- Application of methods to determine minerals in thin sections
- Identification and characterisation of metamorphic minerals
- Description of rocks. Derive correct petrographic rock name, based on modal abundance and microstructure/texture
- Interpretation of rock fabric/microstructure, parageneses and mineral reactions
Content- Repetition of principal optical properties and of microscopic methods to identify minerals. Emphasis on interpretation of interference figures.
- Study typical metamorphic rocks in thin sections
- Description and interpretation of parageneses and texture/microstructures. Study the age relationship of crystallisation and deformation.
- Estimation of metamorphic grade
- Quantification: To determine volume percentage of rock components
- Scientific documentation: Descriptions, drawings, photomicrography using different kinds of illumination and using plane- or circular-polarised light.
Lecture noteshandouts with additional information on theory and for exercises, in English.
To brush up knowledge in optical mineralogy read the relevant chapters in the book of W.D. Nesse (2004).
Literature- Nesse, W.D.: Introduction to optical mineralogy. 3. Ed. (2004). Figures from this book will be used in lectures. Besides the theory, this book describes all optical properties of important minerals. Petrographers working on varying types of silicate rocks should have a look at this book.
-Yardley, B.W.D., Mackenzie, W.S. und Guilford, C. (1990): Atlas of metamorphic rocks and their textures. Longman Scientific. With nice pictures.
Also available in the D-ERDW library, NO building, on D-floor.
- Vernon, R.H. (2004): A practical guide to rock microstructures. Cambridge Univ. Press. 594 pages. Includes color photos and a glossary.
Prerequisites / NoticeNumber of participants 24.
Participants should have basic knowledge in crystallography, mineralogy and petrology, and have taken practical courses in microscopy of thin sections, as well as lectures in metamorphic petrology and structural geology!

Other microscopy courses at department D-ERDW are on:
- magmatic rocks, following this course in second half of semester (P. Ulmer, IGP; Inst. for Geochemistry and Petrology)
- sedimentary rocks (Geol. Institute)
- ore minerals (reflected light microscopy, Th. Driesner, IGP)
- microstructures, deformed rocks (Geol. Institute)
651-4047-00LMicroscopy of Magmatic RocksW+2 credits2GP. Ulmer
AbstractThis course provides basic knowledge in microscopy of igneous rocks. Apart from the identification of common igneous minerals in thin sections, mineral assemblages, textures and structures will be investigated and the results of microscopy will be combined with igneous phase equilibria to understand generation, differentiation and emplacement of igneous rocks.
ObjectiveThe principal goal of this course is to acquire expertise in :
(1) optical determination of minerals in igneous rocks using the polarizing microscope
(2) Identification of igneous rocks basing on modal mineralogy, structure and texture;
(3) Interpretation of textures and structures and associated igneous processes;
(4) Application of igneous phase diagrams to natural rocks.
ContentThis practical course bases on the course 'Microscopy of metamorphic rocks' (P. Nievergelt), that is taught immediately before this course, where basic knowledge in optical mineralogy and the use of the polarizing microscope is acquired.
In this course, the most important (common) igneous minerals and rocks are studied in thin sections under the polarizing microscope. Mineral assemblages, structures, textures and crystallization sequences are determined and utilized to understand the generation, differentiation and emplacement of igneous rocks. In addition, we will apply igneous phase equilibria that have been introduced in other lectures (such as magmatism and volcanism at ETH/Uni Zurich or an equivalent igneous petrology course) to natural rock samples in order to constrain qualitatively parental magma compositions and crystallization conditions.
The range of investigated rocks encompasses mantle rocks, tholeiitic, calc-alkaline and alkaline plutonic and volcanic rocks that contain the most common igneous minerals.
Lecture notesBasis of the optical determinations of (igneous) minerals using the polarizing microscope are the tables of Tröger ('Optische Bestimmung der gesteinsbildenden Minerale', Optical determination of rock-forming minerals, 1982) that are available in sufficient volumes in the class room.
Some loose sheets will be distributed during the lecture providing additional information and templates for thin section descriptions.
Additionally, I recommend the lecture notes of H.-G- Stosch (University of Karlsruhe, in German) that can be provided in printed form upon request.
LiteratureThere are several good textbooks on the subject of ´mineralogy in thin sections´ that I can suggest upon request.
Prerequisites / NoticeThis course does not include an introduction in optical mineralogy and the use of a polarizing microscope and, therefore, bases on the course ¨Microscopy of metamorphic rocks¨ taught by P. Nievergelt immediately before this course where these basic principles are provided. Alternatively, e.g. for external students, an equivalent course is required to follow this practical course.

Other microscope courses taught at ETH Zurich at the D-ERDW are:
Microscopy of metamorphic rocks (P. Nievergelt, required for this course)
Microscopy of sedimentary rocks (W. Winkler & Blaesi)
Reflected light microscopy and ore deposits practical (T. Driesner)
Microstructures (deformation structures, B. Cordnonnier)
651-4051-00LReflected Light Microscopy and Ore Deposits PracticalW+2 credits2PT. Driesner
AbstractIntroduction to reflected light microscopy. Use of the microscope. Identification of opaque minerals through the used of tables.
Description of textures and paragenetic sequences.
Given Participants should attend in parallel with Ore Deposits I (651-4037-00L).
ObjectiveRecognition of the most important ore minerals in polished section, interpretation of mineral textures in geologcal context
ContentIntroduction to reflected light microscopy as a petrographic technique. Leaning main diagnstic criteria. Study of small selection of important and characteristic minerals. Interpreting polished (thin) sections as exercise
Lecture notesTo be handed out in class
Prerequisites / NoticeCredits and mark based on independent description of selected sample(s) towards the end of the course
651-4113-00LSedimentary Petrography and MicroscopyW+2 credits2GV. Picotti, M. G. Fellin
AbstractMicroscopy of carbonate (1st half of semester) and sliciclastic rocks (2nd half) rocks as well as siliceous, phosphatic and evaporitic sediements.
ObjectiveDescription of grains and cement/matrix, texture, classification of the main sedimentary rocks. Discussion and interpretation of the environment of sedimentation. Diagenetic Processes.
ContentMicroscopy of carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, siliceous and phosphatic rocks, their origin and classification. Diagenesis.
Lecture notesEnglish textbooks recommended
LiteratureTucker, M.E. (2001): Sedimentary Petrology-An introduction to the Origin of Sedimentary Rocks, 3rd Editition. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, 262 p.
Prerequisites / NoticeThe earlier attendance of other MSc microscopy courses (e.g. magmatic and metamorphic rocks) is not required if during the BSc a general course on microscopy of rocks was completed.
Part B: Methods
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4055-00LAnalytical Methods in Petrology and GeologyW+3 credits2GE. Reusser, S. Bernasconi, L. Zehnder
AbstractPractical work in analytical chemistry for Earth science students.
ObjectiveKnowledge of some analytical methods used in Earth sciences.
ContentIntroduction to analytical chemistry and atom physics.
X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS), Mass spectroscopy for light isotopes.
Lecture notesShort handouts for each analytical method.
651-4117-00LSediment AnalysisW+3 credits2GM. G. Fellin, A. Gilli, V. Picotti
AbstractAims, usefulness and theoretical background of methods for sediment analysis.
ObjectiveThe course offers a series of basic methods useful for the analysis of sediments. It is also offered to apply these methods on material collected for the the students Master or PhD projects.
ContentStaining of thin sections for feldspar and carbonate, peels of carbonate rocks, modal analysis of siliciclastic rocks, calcimetry and organic carbon measurement, heavy mineral analysis, cold cathodoluminescence microscopy of carbonate rocks, simple clay mineral separation, exoscopy of quartz grains.
Lecture notesFor the various analytical methods English texts are available from text books and scientific publications.
LiteratureBOUMA. A.H. (1969): Methods for the study of sedimentary structures. Wiley-Interscience, 458 p.
CARVER, R.E. (Ed.) (1971): Procedures in sedimentary petrology. Wiley-Interscience, 653 p.
TUCKER, M. (Ed.) (1988): Techniques in sedimentology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 394 p.
MANGE, M. A. & MAURER, H. F. (1992): Heavy minerals in colour, Chapman & Hall, 147 p.

and various journal papers
Prerequisites / NoticeIt is desirable but not excluding that the students bring their own material (Master or PhD project) for some of the analytical methods.
651-4031-00LGeographic Information Systems Restricted registration - show details
Number of participants limited to 60.
W+3 credits4GA. Baltensweiler, M.  Hägeli-Golay
AbstractIntroduction to the architecture and data processing capabilities of geographic information systems (GIS). Practical application of spatial data modeling and geoprocessing functions to a selected project from the earth sciences.
ObjectiveKnowledge of the basic architecture and spatial data handling capabilities of geographic information systems.
ContentTheoretical introduction to the architecture, modules, spatial data types and spatial data handling functions of geographic information systems (GIS). Application of data modeling principles and geoprocessing capabilities using ArcGIS: Data design and modeling, data acquisition, data integration, spatial analysis of vector and raster data, particular functions for digital terrain modeling and hydrology, map generation and 3D-visualization.
Lecture notesIntroduction to Geographic Information Systems, Tutorial: Introduction to ArcGIS Desktop
LiteratureLongley, P. A., M. F. Goodchild, D. J. Maguire, and D. W. Rhind (2015): Geographic Information Systems and Science. Fourth Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England.

DeMers, M. N. (2009): Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, N.J., USA.
651-4063-00LX-ray Powder Diffraction Restricted registration - show details
Number of participants limited to 12.
W+3 credits2GM. Plötze
AbstractIn the course the students learn to measure X-ray diffraction patterns of minerals and to evaluate these using different software for qualitative and quantitative mineral composition as well as crystallographic parameters.
ObjectiveUpon successful completion of this course students are able to:
- describe the principle of X-ray diffraction analysis
- carry out a qualitative and quantitative mineralogical analysis independently,
- critically assess the data,
- communicate the results in a scientific report.
ContentFundamental principles of X-ray diffraction
Setup and operation of X-ray diffractometers
Interpretation of powder diffraction data
Qualitative and quantitative phase analysis of crystalline powders (e.g. with Rietveld analysis)
Lecture notesSelected handouts will be made available in the lecture
LiteratureALLMANN, R.: Röntgen-Pulverdiffraktometrie : Rechnergestützte Auswertung, Phasenanalyse und Strukturbestimmung Berlin : Springer, 2003.
DINNEBIER, R.E. et al.: Powder Diffraction. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2008. (http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/eBook/978-0-85404-231-9)
PECHARSKY, V.K. and ZAVALIJ, P.Y: Fundamentals of Powder Diffraction and Structural Characterization of Materials. Springer, 2009.
(http://www.springerlink.com/content/k100xr/#section=126257&page=1)
Prerequisites / NoticeThe course includes a high portion of practical exercises in sample preparation as well as measurement and evaluation of X-ray powder diffraction data.
Own sample will be analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. Knowledge in mineralogy of this system is essential.
The lecture course is limited to 12 participants.
Restricted Choice Modules Geology
A minimum of two restricted choice modules must be completed for the major Geology.
Palaeoclimatology
Palaeoclimatology: Compulsory Courses
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4057-00LClimate History and PalaeoclimatologyW+3 credits2GS. Bernasconi, B. Ausin Gonzalez, A. Fernandez Bremer, A. Gilli
AbstractThe course "Climate history and paleoclimatology gives an overview on climate through geological time and it provides insight into methods and tools used in paleoclimate research.
ObjectiveThe student will have an understanding of evolution of climate and its major forcing factors -orbital, atmosphere chemistry, tectonics- through geological time. He or she will understand interaction between life and climate and he or she will be familiar with the use of most common geochemical climate "proxies", he or she will be able to evaluate quality of marine and terrestrial sedimentary paleoclimate archives. The student will be able to estimate rates of changes in climate history and to recognize feedbacks between the biosphere and climate.
ContentClimate system and earth history - climate forcing factors and feedback mechanisms of the geosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere.

Geological time, stratigraphy, geological archives, climate archives, paleoclimate proxies

Climate through geological time: "lessons from the past"

Cretaceous greenhouse climate

The Late Paleocene Thermal Maximum (PETM)

Cenozoic Cooling

Onset and Intensification of Southern Hemisphere Glaciation

Onset and Intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation

Pliocene warmth

Glacial and Interglacials

Millennial-scale climate variability during glaciations

The last deglaciation(s)

The Younger Dryas

Holocene climate - climate and societies
Palaeoclimatology: Courses of Choice
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4043-00LSedimentology II: Biological and Chemical Processes in Lacustrine and Marine Systems
Prerequisite: Successful completion of the MSc-course "Sedimentology I" (651-4041-00L).
W3 credits2GV. Picotti, A. Gilli
AbstractThe course will focus on biological amd chemical aspects of sedimentation in marine environments. Marine sedimentation will be traced from coast to deep-sea. The use of stable isotopes palaeoceanography will be discussed. Neritic, hemipelagic and pelagic sediments will be used as proxies for environmental change during times of major perturbations of climate and oceanography.
Objective-You will understand chemistry and biology of the marine carbonate system
-You will be able to relate carbonate mineralogy with facies and environmental conditions
-You will be familiar with cool-water and warm-water carbonates
-You will see carbonate and organic-carbon rich sediments as part of the global carbon cycle
-You will be able to recognize links between climate and marine carbonate systems (e.g. acidification of oceans and reef growth)
-You will be able to use geological archives as source of information on global change
-You will have an overview of marine sedimentation through time
Content-carbonates,: chemistry, mineralogy, biology
-carbonate sedimentation from the shelf to the deep sea
-carbonate facies
-cool-water and warm-water carbonates
-organic-carbon and black shales
-C-cycle, carbonates, Corg : CO2 sources and sink
-Carbonates: their geochemical proxies for environmental change: stable isotopes, Mg/Ca, Sr
-marine sediments thorugh geological time
-carbonates and evaporites
-lacustrine carbonates
-economic aspects of limestone
Lecture notesno script. scientific articles will be distributed during the course
LiteratureWe will read and critically discuss scientific articles relevant for "biological and chemical processes in marine and lacustrine systems"
Prerequisites / NoticeThe grading of students is based on in-class exercises and end-semester examination.
Sedimentology
Sedimentology: Compulsory Courses
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4041-00LSedimentology I: Physical Processes and Sedimentary SystemsW+3 credits2GV. Picotti
AbstractSediments preserved a record of past landscapes. This courses focuses on understanding the processes that modify sedimentary landscapes with time and how we can read this changes in the sedimentary record.
ObjectiveThe students learn basic concepts of modern sedimentology and stratigraphy in the context of sequence stratigraphy and sea level change. They discuss the advantages and pitfalls of the method and look beyond. In particular we pay attention to introducing the importance of considering entire sediment routing systems and understanding their functionning.
ContentDetails on the program will be handed out during the first lecture.

We will attribute the papers for presentation on the 26th, so please be here on that day!
LiteratureThe sedimentary record of sea-level change
Angela Coe, the Open University.
Cambridge University Press
Prerequisites / NoticeThe grading of students is based on in-class exercises and end-semester examination.
651-4043-00LSedimentology II: Biological and Chemical Processes in Lacustrine and Marine Systems
Prerequisite: Successful completion of the MSc-course "Sedimentology I" (651-4041-00L).
W+3 credits2GV. Picotti, A. Gilli
AbstractThe course will focus on biological amd chemical aspects of sedimentation in marine environments. Marine sedimentation will be traced from coast to deep-sea. The use of stable isotopes palaeoceanography will be discussed. Neritic, hemipelagic and pelagic sediments will be used as proxies for environmental change during times of major perturbations of climate and oceanography.
Objective-You will understand chemistry and biology of the marine carbonate system
-You will be able to relate carbonate mineralogy with facies and environmental conditions
-You will be familiar with cool-water and warm-water carbonates
-You will see carbonate and organic-carbon rich sediments as part of the global carbon cycle
-You will be able to recognize links between climate and marine carbonate systems (e.g. acidification of oceans and reef growth)
-You will be able to use geological archives as source of information on global change
-You will have an overview of marine sedimentation through time
Content-carbonates,: chemistry, mineralogy, biology
-carbonate sedimentation from the shelf to the deep sea
-carbonate facies
-cool-water and warm-water carbonates
-organic-carbon and black shales
-C-cycle, carbonates, Corg : CO2 sources and sink
-Carbonates: their geochemical proxies for environmental change: stable isotopes, Mg/Ca, Sr
-marine sediments thorugh geological time
-carbonates and evaporites
-lacustrine carbonates
-economic aspects of limestone
Lecture notesno script. scientific articles will be distributed during the course
LiteratureWe will read and critically discuss scientific articles relevant for "biological and chemical processes in marine and lacustrine systems"
Prerequisites / NoticeThe grading of students is based on in-class exercises and end-semester examination.
Sedimentology: Courses of Choice
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4901-00LQuaternary Dating Methods Information W3 credits2GI. Hajdas, S. Ivy Ochs
AbstractReconstruction of time scales is critical for all Quaternary studies in both Geology and Archeology. Various methods are applied depending on the time range of interest and the archive studied. In this lecture we focus on the six methods that are most frequently used for dating Quaternary sediments and landforms.
ObjectiveStudents will be made familiar with the details of the six dating methods through lectures on basic principles, analysis of case studies, solving of problem sets for age calculation and visits to dating laboratories.

At the end of the course students will:
1. understand the fundamental principles of the most frequently used dating methods for Quaternary studies.
2. be able to calculate an age based on data of the six methods studied.
3. choose which dating method (or combination of methods) is suitable for a certain field problem.
4. critically read and evaluate the application of dating methods in scientific publications.
Content1. Introduction: Time scales for the Quaternary, Isotopes and decay
2. Radiocarbon dating: principles and applications
3. Cosmogenic nuclides: 3He,10Be, 14C, 21Ne, 26Cl, 36Cl
4. U-series disequilibrium dating
5. Luminescence dating
5. K/Ar and Ar/Ar dating of lava flows and ash layers
6. Cs-137 and Pb-210 (soil, sediments, ice core)
7. Summary and comparison of results from several dating methods at specific sites
Prerequisites / NoticeVisit to radiocarbon lab, cosmogenic nuclide lab, noble gas lab, accelerator (AMS) facility.

Required attending the lecture, visiting laboratories, handing back solutions for problem sets (Excercises)
651-4063-00LX-ray Powder Diffraction Restricted registration - show details
Number of participants limited to 12.
W3 credits2GM. Plötze
AbstractIn the course the students learn to measure X-ray diffraction patterns of minerals and to evaluate these using different software for qualitative and quantitative mineral composition as well as crystallographic parameters.
ObjectiveUpon successful completion of this course students are able to:
- describe the principle of X-ray diffraction analysis
- carry out a qualitative and quantitative mineralogical analysis independently,
- critically assess the data,
- communicate the results in a scientific report.
ContentFundamental principles of X-ray diffraction
Setup and operation of X-ray diffractometers
Interpretation of powder diffraction data
Qualitative and quantitative phase analysis of crystalline powders (e.g. with Rietveld analysis)
Lecture notesSelected handouts will be made available in the lecture
LiteratureALLMANN, R.: Röntgen-Pulverdiffraktometrie : Rechnergestützte Auswertung, Phasenanalyse und Strukturbestimmung Berlin : Springer, 2003.
DINNEBIER, R.E. et al.: Powder Diffraction. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2008. (http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/eBook/978-0-85404-231-9)
PECHARSKY, V.K. and ZAVALIJ, P.Y: Fundamentals of Powder Diffraction and Structural Characterization of Materials. Springer, 2009.
(http://www.springerlink.com/content/k100xr/#section=126257&page=1)
Prerequisites / NoticeThe course includes a high portion of practical exercises in sample preparation as well as measurement and evaluation of X-ray powder diffraction data.
Own sample will be analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. Knowledge in mineralogy of this system is essential.
The lecture course is limited to 12 participants.
Structural Geology
Structural Geology: Compulsory Courses
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4132-00LField Course IV: Non Alpine Field Course Restricted registration - show details
Does not take place this semester.
Number of participants limited to 24.
W+3 credits6PJ.‑P. Burg
AbstractField Course to Oman. The students will produce a geological map write and a complementing field report.
Objective
Prerequisites / NoticeSuccessful participation in Field Courses I-III.
Structural Geology: Courses of Choice
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4003-00LNumerical Modelling of Rock DeformationW3 credits2GM. Frehner
AbstractIntroduction to the programming software Matlab.
Learning and understanding the continuum mechanics equations describing rock deformation.
Mathematical equations describing rock rheology: elasticity + viscosity.
Introduction to the finite-element method for modeling rock deformation in 2D.
A small applied project-work at the end of the semester will be tailored to the student's interest.
ObjectiveAt the end of this course, the students should be able to
- Use Matlab for their future needs (e.g., for their MSc Thesis)
- Understand the fundamental concept of the finite-element method
- Apply the finite-element method to successfully work on a small project tailored to the student's interests.

In addition, innovative methods will be applied to mark the performance in the course, which includes self-evaluation and peer-evaluation among the students. Therefore, some soft-skills will be required and trained as well, such as
- honest self-evaluation and self-grading
- providing honest feedback to a colleague in a tone that is acceptable
- receiving feedback from a colleague without taking criticism personal
- learning the procedure of scientific peer-evaluation
ContentIntroduction to Matlab
Continuum mechanics equations necessary to describe rock deformation
Rheological equations: elasticity + viscous materials
Introduction to the finite-element method (in 1D)
Numerical integration + isoparametric elements
Going to 2D finite elements
Finite-element method for 2D elasticity
Stress calculation + visualization
Finite-element method for 2D viscous materials
Heterogeneous media
Final project-based work tailored to the student's interest.

A substantial part of the lecture will take place in the computer-lab, where numerical finite element codes will be applied. The used software is Matlab. Students may bring their own laptop with a pre-installed copy of Matlab.
Lecture notesThe script is very diverse and ranges from PowerPoint-based pdf-files, to self-study tutorials. Also, the more theoretical and mathematical aspects will be explained on the black board without a proper script.

All lecture-presentations, as well as the numerical codes, will be made available to the students online.
LiteratureThere is no mandatory literature. The following literature is recomended:

Turcotte D.L. and Schubert G., 2002: Geodynamics, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-66624-4

Pollard D.D. and Fletcher R.C., 2005: Fundamentals of Structural Geology, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-83927-0

Ranalli G., 1995: Rheology of the Earth, Chapman & Hall, ISBN 0-412-54670-1

Smith I.M. and Griffiths D.V., 2004: Programming the Finite Element Method, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, ISBN 978-0-470-849-70-5

Zienkiewicz O.C. and Taylor R.L., 2000: The Finite Element Method - Volume 1: The Basis, Butterworth Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-5049-4
Prerequisites / NoticeA good knowledge of linear algebra is expected.

The used software is Matlab. So, knowledge of Matlab is advantageous. Students may bring their own laptop with a pre-installed copy of Matlab.
651-4111-00LRock Physics Information W3 credits2GA. S. Zappone, K. Kunze, C. Madonna
AbstractThe modern discipline of Rock Physics serves as a bridge between traditional Rock Mechanics and traditional Rock Physical Property measurement. Through understanding the physics of the process, we strive to better understand other related fields such as structural geology and geophysics.
ObjectiveThe objective of this course is to introduce Rock Physics as a laboratory and interpretive tool.
ContentThe course will consists of regular classes, with a small number of laboratory demonstrations made on an ad-hoc basis (depending on equipment and research objective schedules at the Rock Deformation Laboratory). The course will cover measurements of physical properties of rock such as density, porosity, permeability and elastic wave velocity, and will introduce the concept of seismic seismic anisotropy etc. Later we will cover rock deformation in the brittle field, earthquake physics and triggering. Finally we will discuss scale effects as we move from small scale laboratory environment to the scale of the geophysical investigation.
Prerequisites / NoticeUndergraduate courses in the following subjects are highly recommended in order to get the most out of this specialist course:

- Basic structural Geology
- Geophysics
651-3521-00LTectonicsW3 credits2VJ.‑P. Burg, E. Kissling
AbstractComprehensive understanding of evolution, mechanics, and rheology of divergent, convergent and wrenching tectonic systems from the lithospheric scale to local shallow crustal and outcrop-scales. Evaluation of plate tectonic and other orogenic processes through the study of reference examples of taken in Alps-Himalaya orogenic system.
ObjectiveComprehensive understanding of evolution, mechanics, and rheology of divergent, convergent and wrenching tectonic systems from the lithospheric scale to local shallow crustal and outcrop-scales.
Assessment of mechanisms responsible for plate movements (the Earth as a heat transfer machine, dynamics of earth mantle, plate driving forces) and subsequent large-scale structures (oceanic basins and cycle of the oceanic lithosphere, convergence and mountain systems and continental growth, etc) through theoretical and experimental information.
Evaluation of plate tectonic and other orogenic processes through the study of reference examples of taken in Alps-Himalaya orogenic system.
ContentPlate tectonic frame work: earth cooling and mantle-plate interaction, three kinds of plate boundaries and their roles and characteristics, cycle of oceanic lithosphere, longlifety and growth of continents, supercontinents.
Rheology of layered lithosphere and upper mantle.
Obduction systems
Collisions systems
Extensional systems
Basin evolution
Passive and active continental margin evolution
Lecture notesDetailed scriptum in digital form and additional learning moduls (www.lead.ethz.ch) available on the intranet.
LiteratureCondie, K. C. 1997. Plate tectonics and crustal evolution. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.
Cox, A. & Hart, R. B. 1986. Plate tectonics. How it works. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Dewey, J. F. 1977. Suture zone complexities: A review. Tectonophysics 40, 53-67.
Dewey, J. F., Pitman III, W. C., Ryan, W. B. F. & Bonin, J. 1973. Plate tectonics and the evolution of the Alpine system. Geological Society of America Bulletin 84, 3137-3180.
Kearey, P. & Vine, F. J. 1990. Global tectonics. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Park, R. G. 1993. Geological structures and moving plates. Chapman & Hall, Glasgow.
Turcotte, D. L. & Schubert, G. 2002. Geodynamics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Windley, B. F. 1995. The evolving continents. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester.
Biogeochemistry
Biogeochemistry: Compulsory Courses
The compulsory courses of the module take place in spring semester.
Biogeochemistry: Courses of Choice
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4058-00LBasics of Palaeobotany (University of Zurich)
Does not take place this semester.
No enrolment to this course at ETH Zurich. Book the corresponding module directly at UZH.
UZH Module Code: BIO280

Mind the enrolment deadlines at UZH:
http://www.uzh.ch/studies/application/mobilitaet_en.html
W3 credits2GUniversity lecturers
AbstractThe course "Basics in Palaeobotany" gives an overview on the evolution and palaeobiology of plants and their relevance for the reconstruction of past environments.
ObjectiveOn successful completion of the module, the students should be able to explain how plants are preserved in the fossil record, to describe the morphology of plant mega fossils, and of spores and pollen. They can describe how plant fossils can be used for reconstructing palaeoenvironments. Students should be able to explain the interactions between evolution of plants, climate and physical environment and they will be able to integrate the dimension of geological time into their understanding of biological events.
Content-Preservation of plants in the fossil record.
-First evidence for plants on Earth
-The conquest of the continents by plants
-Major adaptation and innovations leading to the present plant diversity
-The evolution and morphology of the major plant groups
-Plant associations through geological time and their palaeogeographic and stratigraphic relevance
-Mass extinctions and the fossil plant record
-Interaction between past vegetation and climate
-The relevance of plant microfossils for reconstruction of palaeoclimate and palaeoecology
651-4043-00LSedimentology II: Biological and Chemical Processes in Lacustrine and Marine Systems
Prerequisite: Successful completion of the MSc-course "Sedimentology I" (651-4041-00L).
W3 credits2GV. Picotti, A. Gilli
AbstractThe course will focus on biological amd chemical aspects of sedimentation in marine environments. Marine sedimentation will be traced from coast to deep-sea. The use of stable isotopes palaeoceanography will be discussed. Neritic, hemipelagic and pelagic sediments will be used as proxies for environmental change during times of major perturbations of climate and oceanography.
Objective-You will understand chemistry and biology of the marine carbonate system
-You will be able to relate carbonate mineralogy with facies and environmental conditions
-You will be familiar with cool-water and warm-water carbonates
-You will see carbonate and organic-carbon rich sediments as part of the global carbon cycle
-You will be able to recognize links between climate and marine carbonate systems (e.g. acidification of oceans and reef growth)
-You will be able to use geological archives as source of information on global change
-You will have an overview of marine sedimentation through time
Content-carbonates,: chemistry, mineralogy, biology
-carbonate sedimentation from the shelf to the deep sea
-carbonate facies
-cool-water and warm-water carbonates
-organic-carbon and black shales
-C-cycle, carbonates, Corg : CO2 sources and sink
-Carbonates: their geochemical proxies for environmental change: stable isotopes, Mg/Ca, Sr
-marine sediments thorugh geological time
-carbonates and evaporites
-lacustrine carbonates
-economic aspects of limestone
Lecture notesno script. scientific articles will be distributed during the course
LiteratureWe will read and critically discuss scientific articles relevant for "biological and chemical processes in marine and lacustrine systems"
Prerequisites / NoticeThe grading of students is based on in-class exercises and end-semester examination.
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