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Search result: Catalogue data in Autumn Semester 2016

Civil Engineering Master Information
3. Semester
Major Courses
Major in Materials and Mechanics
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
101-0619-00LMechanics of Building Materials Information W3 credits2GF. Wittel
AbstractMaterial models comprise our knowledge on the physical behavior of materials. Based on a short introduction to solid mechanics, 3D material laws for elastic, visco-elastic behavior, plasticity and damage mechanics are discussed. We focus on material laws for concrete, metals, wood and other composites, how to obtain parameters from mechanical tests and their application in FEM calculations.
ObjectiveThis introductory course aims to bridge the gap between phenomenological, qualitative comprehension of processes in building materials, their characterization in mechanical testing and the ability to apply those for practical design purposes via constitutive models.

Upon completion of the course you should be able to:

- classify different material behavior (e.g. linear/non-linear elastic, elasto-plastic, creep) with respect to types of constitutive material models (total /incremental strain models, damage / plasticity models, linear visco-elasticity),

- review how incremental strain models (e.g. elasto-plastic) are algorithmically implemented in Finite Element software (UMat of Abaqus),

- formulate the main approach and assumptions to the most import models for building materials and discuss their limitations,

- propose experimental campaigns for obtaining relevant material parameters for non-linear material models.
Content- Introduction to constitutive models for materials
- Fundaments of mechanics of materials
- Cauchy-, hyper- and hypoelastic material descriptions
- Constitutive Models for Concrete (non-linear elastic)
- Introduction to metall and concrete plasticity
- Introduction to ABAQUS UMAT Programming
- Damage continuum mechanics
- Linear visco-elastic materials
Lecture notesWill be provided during the lecture.
101-0639-01LScience and Engineering of Glass and Natural Stone in Construction Information
Does not take place this semester.
W3 credits2GF. Wittel, T. Wangler
AbstractThe course offers an overview of relevant practical issues and present technological challenges for glass and natural stones in constructions. Students gain a good knowledge of the basics of glasses and natural stones, their potential as engineering materials and learn to apply them in the design of civil engineering constructions and to evaluate concepts.
ObjectiveGlass is increasingly used in constructions to ease the construction process, as functional insulation barrier, even for structural applications of impressive size. While everyone has experienced the innovation potential of glass in the last decade, products from natural stone suffer from an unjustified traditional image that often originates from a lack of understanding of the material and its combination with other materials. Culturally important structures often are made from natural stone and their conservation demands an understanding of their deterioration mechanisms, the concepts of which can be applied to other civil engineering materials. Designers and engineers need the knowledge to reconcile materials and system behavior with the entire processing, handling, integration and life time in mind.
In this module students are provided with a broad fundamental as well as practice-oriented education on glass and natural stone in civil engineering applications. Present and future construction and building concepts demand for such materials with optimized properties. Based on the fundamentals from the Bachelor course in materials by the end of this module, you should be able to:

-recognize and choose specific applications from the broad overview you were provided with,

-relate processing technologies to typical products and building applications and recognize (and explain typical damage related to wrong material choice or application,

-explain the nature of glassy and crystalline materials and interpret their physical behavior against this background,

-explain the major deterioration mechanisms in natural stone and how this relates to durability,

-analyze material combinations and appraise their application in future products as well as integration in existing constructions,

- summarize with appropriate guidance publications on a related topic in an oral presentation and short report.
ContentLecture 1: An introduction to science and engineering of glass and natural stone in construction (FW/TW)

Lecture 2: Glass chemistry including historical development of glass composition, use of raw materials, melts, chemical stability and corrosion. (FW)

Lecture 3: Geology and mineralogy of stones used in construction. Formation processes, chemistry, crystal structure. (TW)

Lecture 4: Microscopic models for glassy materials. Physics of glass transition. From microscopic physical models to thermodynamics, rheology and mechanics of glassy materials. (FW)

Lecture 5: Stone properties and behavior: microstructure, density, porosity, mechanical properties (TW)

Lecture 6: Glass physics: Optical properties (transmission, reflection, emission, refraction, polarization and birefringence, testing methods); Mechanical properties (density, thermal, mechanical, electric properties, glass testing) (FW)

Lecture 7: Stone properties and durability: transport, moisture and thermal cycling (TW)

Lecture 8: Forming and processing of glass: (plate and molded glass, drawing, slumping, profiling etc.; Processing: Cutting, mechanical processing, tempering, gluing, bending, laminating of glass Surface treatments: coating, sputtering, enameling, printing, etching, chemical pre-stressing.) (FW)

Lecture 9: Durability: Salt crystallization, freezing, biodeterioration (TW)

Lecture 10: Glass products for civil engineering applications: (Molded glasses, fiber glass, foam glass, plate glass); construction glass (insulation glass, structural glass, protective glass, intelligent glass, codes); (FW)

Lecture 11: Conservation: Consolidation, cleaning, and other treatments (TW). Practical aspects (guest lecturer)

Lecture 12: Glass in constructions. (modelling, application and regulation, typical damage in glass) (FW)

Lecture 13: Student presentations; exam questions (FW/TW)
Lecture notesWill be handed out in the lectures
LiteratureWerkstoffe II script (download via the IFB homepage). Rest will be handed out in the lectures
Prerequisites / NoticeWerkstoffe I/II of the bachelor studies or equivalent introductory materials lecture.
101-0659-01LDurability and Maintenance of Reinforced ConcreteW3 credits2VB. Elsener, U. Angst
AbstractThe course focuses on durability of RC structures, in particular the corrosion of steel in concrete. The main emphasis lies on understanding the mechanisms, design and execution aspects related to durability of new and existing structures. New methods and materials for preventative measures, condition assessment and repair techniques are treated with lectures and practice related exercises.
ObjectiveUnderstand the mechanism of deterioration of RC structures, in particular reinforcement corrosion.
Know the relevant parameters affecting durability of reinforced concrete, in particular cover depth, concrete quality, moisture, and the ways to control durability
Understand the current approaches for design for durability (exposure classes, prescriptive) and be aware of their limitations
Know the future performance-based models for durability design and the difficulties in defining input parameters (such as critical chloride content).
Know and understand different ways to improve durability of RC structures (e.g. stainless steel reinforcement)
Know the particular problems with post-tensioned structures and ways to overcome them (electrically isolated tendons).
Know and understand the non-destructive methods for inspection and condition assessment (especially half-cell potential mapping) and be aware of the limitations
Know and understand repair methods such as conventional repair, electrochemical methods (in particular cathodic protection)
Be aware of differences in performance of the new blended cements (especially CEM II with limestone) respect to the traditional Portland cement and the possible future problems for durability.
ContentReinforced concrete combines the good compressive strength of concrete with the high tensile strength of steel and has proven to be successful in terms of structural performance and durability. However, there are instances of premature failure of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete components due to corrosion of the reinforcing steel with very high economic implications of such damage. This course focuses on the chloride and carbonation induced corrosion of steel in concrete, presenting transport mechanisms and electrochemical concepts. The main emphasis lies on design and execution aspects related to durability of new and existing structures. New methods and materials for preventative measures, condition assessment and repair techniques are discussed. The course is a point of reference for engineers and materials scientists involved in research and practice of corrosion protection, rehabilitation and maintenance of reinforced concrete structures and components.

Content of the course in detail:

Lecture 1
Administrative issues, literature, what do students expect to learn? Introduction (economic relevance of durability, transition from building to maintenance). Fundamentals of corrosion and durability / Passivity and pitting corrosion

Lecture 2
Reinforced concrete / Corrosion protection / Degradation mechanism corrosion (chlorides/carbonation) / electrochemical mechanism / controlling parameters / cracks and spalling on surface, danger of localized corrosion

Lecture 3
Other degradation mechanisms: sulphate attack, ASR, frost attack
Various examples, frequency of occurrence of individual deterioration mechanisms

Lecture 4
Service life: initiation stage & propagation stage. Durability design: prescriptive approach, constructive detailing, importance of moisture for almost all degradation mechanisms. Performance based approach, simple diffusion approach for chloride ingress, Critical chloride content (influencing parameters)

Lecture 5
Stainless steel as reinforcing steel for concrete / different types of stainless steels / mechanical properties / corrosion resistance, passivity / coupling with black reinforcing steel / examples of application / life-cycle-costs

Lecture 6
Inspection and condition assessment I: visual inspection / destructive testing (chloride profiles, carbonation depth, thin section analysis, etc.)

Lectures 7
Inspection and condition assessment II: non-destructive testing (potential mapping, cover depth measurement, resistivity measurement). Potential mapping: measurement principle / effect of carbonated cover zone / effect of moisture / examples

Lecture 8
Post-tensioned structures / problem with existing structures: no NDT method / approach for protection (multiple barrier) / new systems with polymer ducts / electrically isolated tendons / fib guidelines / Swiss guideline / Monitoring techniques / Applications

Lecture 9
Repair methods I: conventional repair / coatings / inhibitors / limitations

Lecture 10
Repair methods II: electrochemical repair methods (ECR, ER, CP) / principles / electrochemical chloride removal (theory and examples) / electrochemical realkalization (theory and examples) / when can these methods be applied ? / cost aspects

Lecture 11
Repair methods III: cathodic protection (theory, technical solutions, anode systems, etc and examples). Monitoring of CP.

Lecture 12
New cements, issue of CO2 reduction. Effects of fly ash, slag, limestone on workability, diffusion coefficient, resistivity, pH (including a discussion of the pozzolanic reaction and it's consequences with respect to pH buffering Portlandite reserve). Discuss products on the Swiss market.

Lecture 13
Summary of most important points of this course given by the students. Open discussion about durability design, use of new cements, new materials and repair methods. Expected consequences for practice ? Course evaluation and time for asking questions.
Lecture notesThe course is based on the book
Corrosion of steel in concrete - prevention diagnosis repair (WILEY 2013) by L. Bertolini, B. Elsener, P. Pedeferri and R. Polder)
Slides of the lectures will be distributed in advance
Special hand outs and reprints for particular topics will be distributed
LiteratureA first overview can be found in: B. Elsener, Corrosion of Steel in Concrete, in "Corrosion and Environmental Degradation", ed. M. Schütze, WILEY VCH (2000) Vol.2 pp. 391 - 431

Backbone of the course: Corrosion of Steel in Concrete - Prevention diagnosis repair, L. Bertolini, B. Elsener, P. Pedeferri, R. Polder, WILEY VCH 2nd edition (2013)
Prerequisites / NoticeStudents are encouraged to actively participate during the lectures. Students are expected to work on all the exercises (four). For one exercise a detailed written solution of the exercise has to be delivered (after the discussion).

Students should have passed the exams on Werkstoffe I and II.
101-0669-00LBituminous MaterialsW3 credits2GM. Partl
AbstractIntroduction into special aspects of the mechanical and chemo-physical properties as well as the structure and application of bituminous materials for road and waterproofing application considering also new R&D trends
ObjectiveIntroduction into special aspects of the mechanical and chemo-physikal properties as well as the structure and application of bituminous materials for road and waterproofing application considering also new R&D trends
ContentBasics of mechanical behavior: Viscosity, rheological models, viscoelasticity, time-temperature superposition, fatigue, viscoplasticity.
Bituminous binders: Tar-related issues, bitumen, natural asphalt, polymer modified bitumen, technological tests, mechanical-physical properties, binder classification, bitumen emulsions, foam bitumen.
Asphalt pavements: material structure and concepts, production, mixture testing and characterization, mixture types, recycling
Waterproofing membranes: tack- coats, structure of polymer modified waterproofing membranes, production, typical tests, system-related properties, conastruction and application
Lecture notesScript, handed out during lecture
Prerequisites / NoticeThe lecture comprises two written exercises and one literature exercise with short presentation that are requested to be done.
101-0689-00LShrinkage and Cracking of Concrete: Mechanisms and Impact on DurabilityW3 credits2VP. Lura
AbstractConcrete is generally viewed as a durable construction material. However, the long-term performance of a concrete structure can be greatly compromised by early-age cracking. This course will explain how shrinkage of concrete leads to cracking and how control of shrinkage allows increasing the expected durability of a concrete structure.
ObjectiveThis course will begin with a brief introduction about hydration and microstructure development in cement paste and concrete. The students will learn the main causes of cracking at early ages, namely plastic, drying, thermal and autogenous shrinkage, with special emphasis on the driving mechanisms. The importance of concrete curing, especially in the first few days after casting, will be explained. Building on the knowledge of the driving forces of shrinkage, the way of action of shrinkage-reducing admixtures will be clarified and different applications illustrated. As an extension of external curing, the students will become familiar with internal water curing by means of saturated lightweight aggregate and superabsorbent polymer.
Most concrete members are restrained by adjacent structures. When shrinkage is restrained, cracks may develop. The students will learn how to apply different criteria for assessing concrete cracking and how to retrieve the mechanical properties of the concrete, especially stiffness and creep, relevant for the calculations.
In addition to macroscopic cracks, microcracking may occur in the cement paste due to inner restraint offered by the aggregates. Both macroscopic cracks and diffuse microcracking within a concrete may facilitate the ingress of harmful substances (e.g. chloride and sulfate ions) into the concrete; these may react with the concrete or with the reinforcement and create further deterioration. The students will acquire an understanding of the mechanisms of transport through cracked concrete, with special focus on experimental evidence and on techniques able to visualize the transport process and follow it in time.
As a final outcome of the course, the students will be able to estimate the impact of cracking on the expected durability of concrete structures and to implement different types of measures to reduce the extent of cracking.
ContentConcrete is generally viewed as a long-lasting construction material. However, the durability of a concrete structure can be jeopardized by shrinkage-induced cracking. In addition to being unsightly, cracks have the potential to act as weak planes for further distress or as conduits for accelerated ingress of aggressive agents that may reduce durability.
Advances in concrete technology over the past decades have led to the practical use of concrete with a low water to binder ratio and with different types of mineral and organic admixtures. Another recent development is self-compacting concrete, which avoids concrete vibration and reduces labor during placing. Unfortunately, these concretes are especially prone to cracking at an early age, unless special precautions are taken. Proper curing becomes in this case the key to achieve better performance in various environmental and load conditions.
Specific topics covered by the course:
- Hydration and microstructure development
- Plastic shrinkage
- Development of mechanical properties
- Thermal deformation
- Autogenous deformation
- Drying shrinkage
- Curing
- Shrinkage-reducing admixtures
- Internal curing: saturated lightweight aggregate and superabsorbent polymer
- Fracture and microcracking
- Transport in cracked concrete
- Impact of cracking on concrete durability
Lecture notesFor each lecture, lecture notes will be provided. In addition, one or two research papers for each lecture will be indicated as supportive information.
The students will be also provided with a DVD containing the teaching material of a previous course on the same topic, including 16 hours of filmed lectures.
LiteratureCopies of one to two research papers relevant to the topic of each lecture will be provided to the students as supportive information.
Prerequisites / NoticeA basic knowledge of concrete technology is preferable.
151-0353-00LMechanics of Composite Materials Information W4 credits2V + 1UG. Kress
AbstractThe course Mechanics of Composite Materials is dedicated to modeling problems following from the complex mechanical behavior of these anisotropic material structures. and modeling of continuous fibre reinforced composites. Participants will be able to design parts for the mechanical, automotive and aerospace industry.
ObjectiveUnderstanding of the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced composites with regard to analysis and design of lightweight structures for mechanical, transportation and aerospace applications.
Content1. Introduction and Elastic Anisotropy
2. Laminate Theory
3. Thick-Walled Laminates and Interlaminar Stresses
4. Edge Effects at Multidirectional Laminates
5. Micromechanics
6. Failure Hypotheses and Damage Predictction
7. Fatigue Response
8. Joining and Bonding Techniques
9. Sandwich Designs
Lecture notesManuscript and handouts in printed form and as PDF-files:
http://www.structures.ethz.ch/education/master/intro/compulsory/mechanics
LiteratureThe lecture material is covered by the script and further literature is referenced in there.
151-0833-00LPrinciples of Nonlinear Finite-Element-Methods Information W5 credits2V + 2UN. Manopulo, B. Berisha, P. Hora
AbstractMost problems in engineering are of nonlinear nature. The nonlinearities are caused basically due to the nonlinear material behavior, contact conditions and instability of structures. The principles of the nonlinear Finite-Element-Method (FEM) will be introduced in the scope of this lecture for treating such problems.
ObjectiveThe goal of the lecture is to provide the students with the fundamentals of the non linear Finite Element Method (FEM). The lecture focuses on the principles of the nonlinear Finite-Element-Method based on explicit and implicit formulations. Typical applications of the nonlinear Finite-Element-Methods are simulations of:

- Crash
- Collapse of structures
- Materials in Biomechanics (soft materials)
- General forming processes

Special attention will be paid to the modeling of the nonlinear material behavior, thermo-mechanical processes and processes with large plastic deformations. The ability to independently create a virtual model which describes the complex non linear systems will be acquired through accompanying exercises. These will include the Matlab programming of important model components such as constitutive equations
Content- Fundamentals of continuum mechanics to characterize large plastic deformations
- Elasto-plastic material models
- Updated-Lagrange (UL), Euler and combined Euler-Lagrange (ALE) approaches
- FEM implementation of constitutive equations
- Element formulations
- Implicit and explicit FEM methods
- FEM formulations of coupled thermo-mechanical problems
- Modeling of tool contact and the influence of friction
- Solvers and convergence
- Modeling of crack propagation
- Introduction of advanced FE-Methods
Lecture notesyes
LiteratureBathe, K. J., Finite-Element-Procedures, Prentice-Hall, 1996
Prerequisites / NoticeIf we will have a large number of students, two dates for the exercises will be offered.
101-0637-10LStructures of Wood and Function Restricted registration - show details
Number of participants limited to 15.

Remark: Replaces 701-1801-00L
Thus, Students having already assigned to 701-1801-00 are not allowed to assign to 101-0637-10.
W3 credits2GI. Burgert, E. R. Zürcher
AbstractThe lecture Wood structure and function conveys basic knowledge on the microstructure of softwoods and hardwoods as well as general and species-specific relationships between growth processes, wood properties and wood function in the living tree.
ObjectiveLearning target is a basic understanding of the anatomy of wood and the related impact of endogenous and exogenous factors. The students can learn how to distinguish common central European wood species at the macroscopic and microscopic level. A deeper insight will be given by wood identification exercises for softwood species. Further the students will gain insight into the relationships between tree growth and wood properties with a specific focus on the wood function in the living tree.
ContentIn an introduction to wood anatomy, the general structural features of softwoods and hardwoods will be explained and factors of diversity and variability will be discussed. A specific focus is laid on common central European tree species with relevance in the wood sector, which will be studied in macro-and microstructural investigations. For softwoods, exercises for the identification of species will be conducted. In the following, relationships between wood structure, properties and function in the living tree will be in the focus of the lecture. Topics covered are mechanical stability and water transport, branches, reaction wood formation (compression wood, tension wood), spiral growth, growth stresses as well as adaptive growth of trees.
101-0637-20LFundamentals of Wood Elaboration and Woodmachining
Remark: Replaces 701-1803-00. Thus, students having already assigned to 701-1803-00 are not allowed to assign to 101-0637-20.
W3 credits2GI. Burgert, O. F. Kläusler
AbstractThe lecture Wood processing conveys knowledge on technological properties of wood and wood-based materials as well as on industrial processes for the fabrication of a vast variety of wood products.
ObjectiveLearning target is a fundamental understanding of the dominating wood machining processes, which are applied to fabricate common wood products. Students will be introduced to the economic relevance of the renewable resource wood and are trained in its technological properties. The students will learn to identify the relationships between wood species and their properties as well as the suitable wood machining processes to fabricate targeted wood products.
ContentThe general introduction shows the economic relevance of the resource wood in a global, European and Swiss context and reflects aspects of sustainability in wood production and certification. In terms of bulk wood products a specific focus in laid on sawn timber production and drying processes. With regard to wood veneer production, steaming, veneer cutting and assembly to veneer lumber products are presented. Further the common technologies for the production of particle boards and fibre boards as well as paper will be discussed. In the following, the topics are related to wood gluing and wood protection as well as potentials and limitations in the application of wood and wood-based products. At the end of the lecture an excursion to a Swiss wood manufacturer is planned, in order to facilitate practical experience.
151-0735-00LDynamic Behavior of Materials and Structures
Does not take place this semester.
W4 credits2V + 2UD. Mohr
AbstractLectures and computer labs concerned with the modeling of the deformation response and failure of engineering materials (metals, polymers and composites) subject to extreme loadings during manufacturing, crash, impact and blast events.
ObjectiveStudents will learn to apply, understand and develop computational models of a large spectrum of engineering materials to predict their dynamic deformation response and failure in finite element simulations. Students will become familiar with important dynamic testing techniques to identify material model parameters from experiments. The ultimate goal is to provide the students with the knowledge and skills required to engineer modern multi-material solutions for high performance structures in automotive, aerospace and navel engineering.
ContentTopics include viscoelasticity, temperature and rate dependent plasticity, dynamic brittle and ductile fracture; impulse transfer, impact and wave propagation in solids; computational aspects of material model implementation into hydrocodes; simulation of dynamic failure of structures;
Lecture notesSlides of the lectures, relevant journal papers and users manuals will be provided.
LiteratureVarious books will be recommended covering the topics discussed in class
Prerequisites / NoticeCourse in continuum mechanics (mandatory), finite element method (recommended)
151-0513-00LMechanics of Soft Materials and TissuesW4 credits3GA. E. Ehret
AbstractAn introduction to concepts for the constitutive modelling of highly deformable materials with non-linear properties is given in application to rubber-like materials and soft biological tissues. Related experimental methods for materials characterization and computational methods for simulation are addressed.
ObjectiveThe objective of the course is to provide an overview of the wide range of non-linear mechanical behaviors displayed by soft materials and tissues together with a basic understanding of their physical origin, to familiarize students with appropriate mathematical concepts for their modelling, and to illustrate the application of these concepts in different fields in mechanics.
ContentSoft solids: rubber-like materials, gels, soft biological tissues
Non-linear continuum mechanics: kinematics, stress, balance laws
Mechanical characterization: experiments and their interpretation
Constitutive modeling: basic principles
Large strain elasticity: hyperelastic materials
Rubber-elasticity: statistical vs. phenomenological models
Biomechanics of soft tissues: composites, anisotropy, heterogeneity
Dissipative behavior: examples and the concept of internal variables.
Lecture notesAccompanying learning materials will be provided or made available for download during the course.
LiteratureRecommended text:
G.A. Holzapfel, Nonlinear Solid Mechanics - A continuum approach for engineering, 2000
L.R.G. Treloar, The physics of rubber elasticity, 3rd ed., 2005
P. Haupt, Continuum Mechanics and Theory of Materials, 2nd ed., 2002
Prerequisites / NoticeA good knowledge base in continuum mechanics, ideally a completed course in non-linear continuum mechanics, is recommended.
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