Search result: Catalogue data in Autumn Semester 2016

MAS in Medical Physics Information
Specialization: General Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering
Major in Biocompatible Materials
151-0255-00LEnergy Conversion and Transport in BiosystemsW4 credits2V + 1UD. Poulikakos, A. Ferrari
AbstractTheory and application of thermodynamics and energy conversion in biological systems with focus on the cellular level.
ObjectiveTheory and application of energy conversion at the cellular level. Understanding of the basic features governing solutes transport in the principal systems of the human cell. Connection of characteristics and patterns from other fields of engineering to biofluidics. Heat and mass transport processes in the cell, generation of forces, work and relation to biomedical technologies.
ContentMass transfer models for the transport of chemical species in the human cell. Organization and function of the cell membrane and of the cell cytoskeleton. The role of molecular motors in cellular force generation and their function in cell migration. Description of the functionality of these systems and of analytical experimental and computational techniques for understanding of their operation. Introduction to cell metabolism, cellular energy transport and cellular thermodynamics.
Lecture notesMaterial in the form of hand-outs will be distributed.
LiteratureLecture notes and references therein.
327-1101-00LBiomineralization Information W2 credits2GK.‑H. Ernst
AbstractThe course addresses undergraduate and graduate students interested in getting introduced into the basic concepts of biomineralization.
ObjectiveThe course aims to introduce the basic concepts of biomineralization and the underlying principles, such as supersaturation, nucleation and growth of minerals, the interaction of biomolecules with mineral surfaces, and cell biology of inorganic materials creation. An important part of this class is the independent study and the presentation of original literature from the field.
ContentBiomineralization is a multidisciplinary field. Topics dealing with biology, molecular and cell biology, solid state physics, mineralogy, crystallography, organic and physical chemistry, biochemistry, dentistry, oceanography, geology, etc. are addressed. The course covers definition and general concepts of biomineralization (BM)/ types of biominerals and their function / crystal nucleation and growth / biological induction of BM / control of crystal morphology, habit, shape and orientation by organisms / strategies of compartmentalization / the interface between biomolecules (peptides, polysaccharides) and the mineral phase / modern experimental methods for studying BM phenomena / inter-, intra, extra- and epicellular BM / organic templates and matrices for BM / structure of bone, teeth (vertebrates and invertebrates) and mollusk shells / calcification / silification in diatoms, radiolaria and plants / calcium and iron storage / impact of BM on lithosphere and atmosphere/ evolution / taxonomy of organisms.

1. Introduction and overview
2. Biominerals and their functions
3. Chemical control of biomineralization
4. Control of morphology: Organic templates and additives
5. Modern methods of investigation of BM
6. BM in matrices: bone and nacre
7. Vertebrate teeth
8. Invertebrate teeth
9. BM within vesicles: calcite of coccoliths
10. Silica
11. Iron storage and mineralization
Lecture notesScript with more than 600 pages with many illustrations will be distributed free of charge.
Literature1) S. Mann, Biomineralization, Oxford University Press, 2001, Oxford, New York
2) H. Lowenstam, S. Weiner, On Biomineralization, Oxford University Press, 1989, Oxford
3) P. M. Dove, J. J. DeYoreo, S. Weiner (Eds.) Biomineralization, Reviews in Mineralogoy & Geochemistry Vol. 54, 2003
Prerequisites / NoticeEach attendee is required to present a publication from the field. The selection of key papers is provided by the lecturer.
No special requirements are needed for attending. Basic knowledge in chemistry and cell biology is expected.
376-1103-00LFrontiers in NanotechnologyW4 credits4VV. Vogel, further lecturers
AbstractMany disciplines are meeting at the nanoscale, from physics, chemistry to engineering, from the life sciences to medicine. The course will prepare students to communicate more effectively across disciplinary boundaries, and will provide them with deep insights into the various frontiers.
ObjectiveBuilding upon advanced technologies to create, visualize, analyze and manipulate nano-structures, as well as to probe their nano-chemistry, nano-mechanics and other properties within manmade and living systems, many exciting discoveries are currently made. They change the way we do science and result in so many new technologies.

The goal of the course is to give Master and Graduate students from all interested departments an overview of what nanotechnology is all about, from analytical techniques to nanosystems, from physics to biology. Students will start to appreciate the extent to which scientific communities are meeting at the nanoscale. They will learn about the specific challenges and what is currently “sizzling” in the respective fields, and learn the vocabulary that is necessary to communicate effectively across departmental boundaries.

Each lecturer will first give an overview of the state-of-the art in his/her field, and then describe the research highlights in his/her own research group. While preparing their Final Projects and discussing them in front of the class, the students will deepen their understanding of how to apply a range of new technologies to solve specific scientific problems and technical challenges. Exposure to the different frontiers will also improve their ability to conduct effective nanoscale research, recognize the broader significance of their work and to start collaborations.
ContentStarting with the fabrication and analysis of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials that enable a variety of scientific and technical applications, we will transition to discussing biological nanosystems, how they work and what bioinspired engineering principles can be derived, to finally discussing biomedical applications and potential health risk issues. Scientific aspects as well as the many of the emerging technologies will be covered that start impacting so many aspects of our lives. This includes new phenomena in physics, advanced materials, novel technologies and new methods to address major medical challenges.
Lecture notesAll the enrolled students will get access to a password protected website where they can find pdf files of the lecture notes, and typically 1-2 journal articles per lecture that cover selected topics.
402-0674-00LPhysics in Medical Research: From Atoms to Cells Information W6 credits2V + 1UB. K. R. Müller
AbstractScanning probe and diffraction techniques allow studying activated atomic processes during early stages of epitaxial growth. For quantitative description, rate equation analysis, mean-field nucleation and scaling theories are applied on systems ranging from simple metallic to complex organic materials. The knowledge is expanded to optical and electronic properties as well as to proteins and cells.
ObjectiveThe lecture series is motivated by an overview covering the skin of the crystals, roughness analysis, contact angle measurements, protein absorption/activity and monocyte behaviour.

As the first step, real structures on clean surfaces including surface reconstructions and surface relaxations, defects in crystals are presented, before the preparation of clean metallic, semiconducting, oxidic and organic surfaces are introduced.

The atomic processes on surfaces are activated by the increase of the substrate temperature. They can be studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The combination with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) allows determining the sizes of the critical nuclei and the other activated processes in a hierarchical fashion. The evolution of the surface morphology is characterized by the density and size distribution of the nanostructures that could be quantified by means of the rate equation analysis, the mean-field nucleation theory, as well as the scaling theory. The surface morphology is further characterized by defects and nanostructure's shapes, which are based on the strain relieving mechanisms and kinetic growth processes.

High-resolution electron diffraction is complementary to scanning probe techniques and provides exact mean values. Some phenomena are quantitatively described by the kinematic theory and perfectly understood by means of the Ewald construction. Other phenomena need to be described by the more complex dynamical theory. Electron diffraction is not only associated with elastic scattering but also inelastic excitation mechanisms that reflect the electronic structure of the surfaces studied. Low-energy electrons lead to phonon and high-energy electrons to plasmon excitations. Both effects are perfectly described by dipole and impact scattering.

Thin-films of rather complex organic materials are often quantitatively characterized by photons with a broad range of wavelengths from ultra-violet to infra-red light. Asymmetries and preferential orientations of the (anisotropic) molecules are verified using the optical dichroism and second harmonic generation measurements. These characterization techniques are vital for optimizing the preparation of medical implants and the determination of tissue's anisotropies within the human body.

Cell-surface interactions are related to the cell adhesion and the contractile cellular forces. Physical means have been developed to quantify these interactions. Other physical techniques are introduced in cell biology, namely to count and sort cells, to study cell proliferation and metabolism and to determine the relation between cell morphology and function.

3D scaffolds are important for tissue augmentation and engineering. Design, preparation methods, and characterization of these highly porous 3D microstructures are also presented.

Visiting clinical research in a leading university hospital will show the usefulness of the lecture series.
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