Search result: Catalogue data in Spring Semester 2012

Physics Master Information
Core Courses
Core Courses: Theoretical Physics
402-0871-00LSolid State TheoryW10 credits4V + 1UM. Sigrist
AbstractThe course is addressed to students in experimental and theoretical condensed matter physics and provides a theoretical introduction to a variety of important concepts used in this field.
ObjectiveThe course provides a theoretical frame for the understanding of basic pinciples in solid state physics. Such a frame includes the topics of symmetries, band structures, many body interactions, Landau Fermi-liquid theory, and specific topics such as transport, superconductivity, or magnetism. The exercises illustrate the various themes in the lecture and help to develop problem-solving skills. The student understands basic concepts in solid state physics and is able to solve simple problems. No diagrammatic tools will be developed.
ContentThe course is addressed to students in experimental and theoretical condensed matter physics and provides a theoretical introduction to a variety of important concepts used in this field. A selection is made from topics such as: Symmetries and their handling via group theoretical concepts, electronic structure in crystals, insulators-semiconductors-metals, phonons, interaction effects, (un-)screened Fermi-liquids, linear response theory, collective modes, screening, transport in semiconductors and metals, magnetism, Mott-insulators, quantum-Hall effect, superconductivity.
Lecture notesin german
402-0844-00LQuantum Field Theory IIW10 credits3V + 2UT. K. Gehrmann
AbstractThe subject of the course is modern applications of quantum field theory with emphasis on the quantization of non-abelian gauge theories.
ContentThe following topics will be covered:
- path integral quantization
- non-abelian gauge theories and their quantization
- systematics of renormalization, including BRST symmetries,
Slavnov-Taylor Identities and the Callan Symanzik equation
- gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking and
their quantization
- renormalization of spontaneously broken gauge theories and
quantum effective actions
LiteratureM.E. Peskin and D.V. Schroeder,
An introduction to Quantum Field Theory, Perseus (1995).
L.H. Ryder,
Quantum Field Theory, CUP (1996).
S. Weinberg,
The Quantum Theory of Fields (Volume 2), CUP (1996).
M. Srednicki,
Quantum Field Theory, CUP (2006).
402-0394-00LTheoretical Astrophysics and CosmologyW10 credits3V + 2UU. Seljak
AbstractThis is the second of a two course series which started with "General Relativity" and continues in the spring with "Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology", where the focus will be on applying general relativity to cosmology.
ContentHere is the rough plan of the topics we plan to cover. The actual pace may vary relative to this plan.

Week 1: overview of homogeneous cosmology I: spacetime geometry, redshift, Hubble law, distances
Week 2: overview of homogeneous cosmology I: dynamics of expansion, accelerated expansion, horizons
Week 3: thermal history of the universe and recombination
Week 4: cosmic microwave background anisotropies I: first look
Week 5: creation of matter: baryogenesis
Week 6: creation of nuclei: nucleosynthesis
Week 7: cold dark matter
Week 8: inflation: homogeneous limit
Week 9: relativistic perturbation theory I
Week 10: relativistic perturbation theory II
Week 11: cosmic microwave background anisotropies II: scalar and tensor modes
Week 12: cosmic microwave background anisotropies III: polarization
Week 13: structure formation
Week 14: gravitational lensing
Week 15: inflation and initial perturbations in the universe
LiteratureSuggested textbooks:
primary textbook: S. Weinberg, Cosmology
secondary textbooks: R. Durrer, The cosmic microwave background
V. Mukhanov: Physical Foundations of Cosmology
E. W. Kolb and M. S. Turner: The Early Universe
S. Carroll: An introduction to General Relativity Spacetime and Geometry
N. Straumann: General relativity with applications to astrophysics
S. Dodelson: Modern Cosmology
A. Liddle and D. Lyth: Cosmological Inflation and Large Scale Structure
Prerequisites / Noticeweb site:
Core Courses: Experimental Physics
402-0702-00LPhenomenology of Particle Physics IIW6 credits2V + 1UM. Dittmar, M. Grazzini
AbstractIn PPP II the standard model of particle physics will be developed from the point of view of gauge invariance. The example of QED will introduce the essential concepts. Then we will treat both strong and electroweak interactions. Important examples like deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering, e+e- -> fermion antifermion, and weak particle decays will be calculated in detail.
402-0264-00LAstrophysics IIW10 credits3V + 2US. Lilly
AbstractThe course examines various topics in astrophysics with an emphasis on physical processes occurring in an expanding Universe, from a time about 1 microsecond after the Big Bang, to the formation of galaxies and supermassive black holes within the next billion years.
ObjectiveThe course examines various topics in astrophysics with an emphasis on physical processes occurring in an expanding Universe. These include the Robertson-Walker metric, the Friedmann models, the thermal history of the Universe after 1 micro-sec including Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, and introduction to Inflation, and the growth of structure through gravitational instability. The observational determination of cosmological parameters is studied in some detail, including the imprinting of temperature fluctuations on the microwave background. Finally, the key physics of the formation of galaxies and the development of black-hole is reviewed, including the way in which the first structures re-ionize the Universe.
Prerequisites / NoticeThis course covers the former Wahlfach course "Cosmology and Large-Scale Structure of the Universe" (402-0377-00L). Therefore it is not allowed to take credits for both courses.

Prior completion of Astrophysics I is recommended but not required.
» Core Courses (Physics Bachelor) [eligible for Master if not already used for Bachelor]
Electives: Physics and Mathematics
Selection: Solid State Physics
402-0516-10LGroup Theoretical Methods in Solid State PhysicsW12 credits3V + 3UD. Pescia
AbstractThis lecture introduces the fundamental concepts of group theory and their representations. The accent is on the concrete applications of the mathematical concepts to practical quantum mechanical problems of solid state physics and other fields of physics rather than on their mathematical proof.
ObjectiveThe aim of this lecture is to give a fundamental knowledge on the application of symmetry in atoms, molecules and solids. The lecture is intended for students at the master and Phd. level in Physics that would like to have a practical and comprehensive view of the role of symmetry in physics. Students in their third year of Bachelor will be perfectly able to follow the lecture and can use it for their future master curriculuum. Students from other Departement are welcome, but they should have a solid background in mathematics and physics, although the lecture is quite self-contained.
Content1. Groups, Classes, Representation theory, Characters of a representation and theorems involving them.

2. The symmetry group of the Schrödinger equation, Invariant subspaces, Atomic orbitals, Molecular vibrations, Cristal field splitting, Compatibility relations, Band structure of crystals.

3. SU(2) and spin, The double group, The Kronecker Product, The Clebsch-Gordan coefficients, Clebsch-Gordan coeffients for point groups,The Wigner-Eckart theorem and its applications to optical transitions.
Lecture notesThe copy of the blackboard is made available online.
LiteratureThis lecture is essentially a practical application of the concepts discussed in:

- L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshitz, Lehrbuch der Theor. Pyhsik, Band III, "Quantenmechanik", Akademie-Verlag Berlin, 1979, Kap. XII
- Ibidem, Band V, "Statistische Physik", Teil 1, Akademie-Verlag 1987, Kap. XIII and XIV.
402-0514-00LModern Topics in Solid State PhysicsW6 credits3GB. Batlogg
AbstractStudents will be introduced to selected current "hot" topics of modern condensed matter physics. (e.g. ORG. SEMICOND., QUANTUM MAGNETS, HIGH TEMP. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, GRAPHENE, NANOTUBES, MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS, QUANTUM PHASE TRANSITIONS, SPINTRONICS, TOPOLOGICAL INSULATORS, etc. see "Inhalt"). We discuss: conceptual questions, methods, and the role of new materials to study novel physics.
ObjectiveThe goal of this course is to provide an introduction to current "hot topics" of condensed matter physics. Conceptional questions will be addressed, experimental methods will be mentioned, and the connection to the relevant materials will be made. The interplay between theoretical and experimental contributions will be highlighted.

Audience: Students of Physics, Materials Science, and Interdisciplinary Natural Sciences.
ContentA list of topics is given in the following, and it will be modified according to the students' preferences and the latest developments in research.

ORGANIC SEMICONDUCTORS (1D/2D conduction, electron-lattice interaction, transport in molecular organic crystals, applications in thin film electronics, printed electronics)

QUANTUM MAGNETS (Low-dimensional magnetism, spin liquids, spin chains, spin ladders, Haldane conjecture, gapped – non-gapped excitation spectra)

HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY (the new iron pnictide class, cuprate superconductors, phase diagram, pseudogap, order parameter symmetry, application status in cables and electronics, ...)
GRAPHENE , NANOTUBES (carbon- and others, electronic properties, helicity, “circuits from nanowires”, 2 D el. structure, graphene sheet, )

MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS (charge transport across a single molecule, is it a way towards a new computing paradigm?)

QUANTUM PHASE TRANSITIONS (transitions at zero temperature from one electronic ground state to an other, as function of a driving parameter, such as electron count, pressure, magnetic field, ...)

GIANT and COLOSSAL MAGNETORESISTANCE (physics and materials of these phenomena that are of great current technical interest)


Additional topics will be considered upon request.
Lecture notesNumerous hand-outs will be distributed during the course.
LiteratureReferences to original literature and review articles will be distributed.
Prerequisites / NoticeThis course is offered for students who seek to familiarize themselves with modern topics in condensed matter physics, a branch of physics that poses great intellectual challenges and is also of great significance for modern technology.

The teaching style emphasizes active student involvement and "learning by teaching".

The course is given by an experienced experimental physicist who has been working on a wide range of topics in condensed matter physics. He will be glad to consider requests for discussion of additional topics.

Depending on the student's preferences, the course language will be German and/or English.
402-0528-12LUltrafast Methods in Solid-State PhysicsW6 credits2V + 1US. Johnson, Y. M. Acremann
AbstractThis course provides an overview and a critical examination of currently active experimental methods to study the sub-nanosecond dynamics of solid-state materials in response to strong perturbations.
ObjectiveThe goal of the course is to enable students to identify and evaluate experimental methods to manipulate and measure the electronic, magnetic and structural properties of solids on the fastest possible time scales. These "ultrafast methods" potentially lead both to an improved understanding of fundamental interactions in condensed matter and to applications in data storage, materials processing and solid-state computing.
ContentThe topical course outline is as follows:

1. Mechanisms of ultrafast light-matter interaction
- A. Dipole interaction
- B. Displacive excitation of phonons
- C. Impulsive stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering
- D. Scattering and Diffraction
2. Ultrafast optical-frequency methods
- A. Ellipsometry
- B. Broadband techniques
- C. Harmonic generation
- D. Fluorescence
- E. 2-D Spectroscopies
3. THz-frequency methods
- A. Mid-IR and THz interactions with solids
- B. Difference frequency mixing
- C. Optical rectification
4. Ultrafast VUV and x-ray frequency methods
- A. Photoemission spectroscopy
- B. X-ray absorption spectroscopies
- C. X-ray diffraction
- D. Coherent imaging
5. Electron based methods
- A. Ultrafast electron diffraction
- B. Electron spectroscopies
Lecture notesWill be distributed.
LiteratureWill be distributed.
Prerequisites / NoticeAlthough the course "Ultrafast Processes in Solids" (402-0526-00L) is useful as a companion to this course, it is not a prerequisite.
402-0318-00LSemiconductor Materials: Characterization, Processing and Devices Information W6 credits2V + 1US. Schön, W. Wegscheider
AbstractThis course gives an introduction into the fundamentals of semiconductor materials. The main focus of the second part is on state-of-the-art characterization, semiconductor processing and devices.
ObjectiveBasic knowledge of semiconductor physics and technology. Application of this knowledge for state-of-the-art semiconductor device processing
ContentSemiconductor material characterization (ex situ): Structural and chemical methods (XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX, EELS, SIMS), electronic methods (Hall & quantum Hall effect, transport), optical methods (PL, absorption sepctroscopy);
Semiconductor processing: E-beam lithography, optical lithography, structuring of layers and devices (RIE, ICP), thin film deposition (metallization, PECVD, sputtering, ALD);
Semiconductor devices: Bipolar and field effect transistors, semiconductor lasers, other devices
402-0536-00LFerromagnetism: From Thin Films to SpintronicsW6 credits2V + 1UR. Allenspach
AbstractFerromagnetism: from Thin Films to Spintronics
ObjectiveKnowing the most important concepts and applications of ferromagnetism, in particular on the nanoscale (thin films, small structures). Being able to read and understand scientific articles at the front of research in this area. Learn to know how and why a hard disk functions. Learn to condense and present the results of a research articles so that the colleagues understand.
ContentShort revisit of some fundamental terms from the “Magnetism: From the atom to the solid state" lecture.
Topics: magnetization curves, magnetic domains, magnetic anisotropy; novel effects in ultrathin magnetic films and multilayers: interlayer exchange, spin transport;
magnetization dynamics, spin precession.
Applications: Magnetic data storage, magnetic memories, spin-based electronics, also called spintronics.
Lecture notesScript will be handed out. Script is in English.
Prerequisites / NoticeLanguage: English, or German if all students agree.
402-0544-00LNeutron Scattering in Condensed Matter Physics II Information W6 credits2V + 1UA. Zheludev
AbstractThe lecture, building on the basic tools seen during the autumn semester, concentrates on advanced subjects and specific applications: polarized neutrons, phase transitions, defect scattering, superconductivity, small angle scattering and reflectometry, neutron optics. The position of neutron scattering relative to complementary techniques such as mu-Sr and X-ray scattering is also discussed.
ObjectiveComprehension, based on the lectures of the autumn semester, of the following specific topics: the use of polarized neutrons, phase transitions (critical neutron scattering), selected structure problems (defects, macromolecules, superconductors, charge density distributions...), magnetism, dynamical neutron scattering (neutron optics), small angle scattering and reflectometry. A few examples from the most recent literature will as well be discussed.
Content7. Fluctuation-dissipation theorem
8. Polarized neutrons
9. Phase transitions
11. Neutron optics
12. Superconductors
13. Ferroelectrics
15. Small angle scattering and reflectometry
16. Scattering from gasses
Lecture notesHandouts will be distributed a the beginning of each lecture.
LiteratureIntrodution to the theory of thermal neutron scattering, G. L. Squires, Dover Publications, INC., Mineola, New York,
ISBN 0-486-69447-X

Theory of neutron scattering from condensed matter, S. W. Lovesey, Clarendon Press, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-852017-4.
402-0596-00LElectronic Transport in Nanostructures Information W6 credits2V + 1UT. M. Ihn
AbstractThe lecture discusses basic quantum phenomena occurring in electron transport through nanostructures: Drude theory, Landauer-Buttiker theory, conductance quantization, Aharonov-Bohm effect, weak localization/antilocalization, shot noise, integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, tunneling transport, Coulomb blockade, coherent manipulation of charge- and spin-qubits.
Lecture notesThe lecture is based on the book:
T. Ihn, Semiconductor Nanostructures: Quantum States and Electronic Transport, ISBN 978-0-19-953442-5, Oxford University Press, 2010.
Prerequisites / NoticeA solid basis in quantum mechanics, electrostatics, quantum statistics and in solid state physics is required.

Students of the Master in Micro- and Nanosystems should at least have attended the lecture by David Norris, Introduction to quantum mechanics for engineers. They should also have passed the exam of the lecture Semiconductor Nanostructures.

The lecture will be given in English.
402-0577-00LQuantum Systems for Information TechnologyW8 credits2V + 2US. Filipp
AbstractIntroduction to experimental quantum information processing (QIP). Quantum bits. Coherent Control. Quantum Measurement. Decoherence. Microscopic and macroscopic quantum systems. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in molecules and solids. Ions and neutral atoms in electromagnetic traps. Charges and spins in quantum dots. Charges and flux quanta in superconducting circuits. Novel hybrid systems.
ObjectiveIn recent years the realm of quantum mechanics has entered the domain of information technology. Enormous progress in the physical sciences and in engineering and technology has allowed us to envisage building novel types of information processors based on the concepts of quantum physics. In these processors information is stored in the quantum state of physical systems forming quantum bits (qubits). The interaction between qubits is controlled and the resulting states are read out on the level of single quanta in order to process information. Realizing such challenging tasks may allow constructing an information processor much more powerful than a classical computer. The aim of this class is to give a thorough introduction to physical implementations pursued in current research for realizing quantum information processors. The field of quantum information science is one of the fastest growing and most active domains of research in modern physics.
ContentA syllabus will be provided on the class web server at the beginning of the term (see section 'Besonderes'/'Notice').
Lecture notesElectronically available lecture notes will be published on the class web server (see section 'Besonderes'/'Notice').
LiteratureQuantum computation and quantum information / Michael A. Nielsen & Isaac L. Chuang. Reprinted. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press ; 2001.. 676 p. : ill.. [004153791].

Additional literature and reading material will be provided on the class web server (see section 'Besonderes'/'Notice').
Prerequisites / NoticeThe class will be taught in English language.

Basic knowledge of quantum mechanics is required, prior knowledge in atomic physics, quantum electronics, and solid state physics is advantageous.

More information on this class can be found on the web site:
402-0770-00LPhysics with Muons: From Atomic to Solid State PhysicsW6 credits2V + 1UE. Morenzoni
AbstractIntroduction and overview of muon science. Particularly, the use of polarized muons as microscopic magnetic probes in condensed matter physics will be presented (Muon spin rotation and relaxation techniques, muSR). Examples of recent research results in magnetism, superconductivity, semiconductors, thin film and heterostructures.
ObjectiveBasic understanding of the use of muons as microscopic magnetic micro probes of matter. Theory and examples of muon spin precession and relaxation (muSR) in various materials. Selected examples in magnetism, superconductivity, semiconductor physics and investigations of heterostructures. Determination of fundamental constants and atomic spectroscopy with muons. The lecture is a useful introduction for people interested in a Bachelor/Master thesis in muSR research at the Paul Scherrer Institute.
ContentIntroduction: Muon characteristics. Generation of muon beams
Particle physics aspects: Muon decay, measurement of the muon magnetic anomaly
Hyperfine interaction, muonium spectroscopy
Fundamentals of muon spin rotation/relaxation and resonance.
Static and dynamic spin relaxation.
Applications in magnetism: local magnetic fields, phase transitions, spin-glass dynamics.
Applications in superconductivity: determination of magnetic penetration depths and coherence length, phase diagram of HTc superconductors, dynamics of the vortex state
Hydrogen states in semiconductors
Thin film and surface studies with low energy muons.
Lecture notesLecture notes in english are distributed at the beginning.
see also
Prerequisites / NoticeLecture can also be given in English.
402-0564-00LSolid State Optics
Does not take place this semester.
W6 credits2V + 1UL. Degiorgi
AbstractThe interaction of light with the condensed matter is the basic idea and principal foundation of several experimental spectroscopic methods. This lecture is devoted to the presentation of those experimental methods and techniques, which allow the study of the electrodynamic response of solids. I will also discuss recent experimental results on materials of high interest in the on-going solid-state physics research, like strongly correlated systems and superconductors.
ObjectiveThe lecture will give a basic introduction to optical spectroscopic methods in solid state physics.
ContentChapter 1
Maxwell equations and interaction of light with the medium
Chapter 2
Experimental methods: a survey
Chapter 3
Kramers-Kronig relations; optical functions
Chapter 4
Drude-Lorentz phenomenological method
Chapter 5
Electronic interband transitions and band structure effects
Chapter 6
Selected examples: strongly correlated systems and superconductors
Lecture notesmanuscript (in english) is provided.
LiteratureF. Wooten, in Optical Properties of Solids, (Academic Press, New York, 1972) and
M. Dressel and G. Gruener, in Electrodynamics of Solids, (Cambridge University Press, 2002).
Prerequisites / NoticeExercises will be proposed every week for one hour. There will be also the possibility to prepare a short presentations based on recent scientific literature (more at the beginning of the lecture).
Selection: Quantum Electronics
402-0412-12LStrong Field Laser IonizationW4 credits2VA. Landsman
AbstractThe course is a theoretical introduction to strong field laser ionization of atoms and molecules. Particular focus will be on tunnel ionization which is behind many recent experiments and applications, both in chemistry and physics.
ContentThe course is a theoretical introduction to strong field laser
ionization of atoms and molecules. Particular focus will be on tunnel
ionization which is behind many recent experiments and applications,
both in chemistry and physics. Common approaches to analyzing
ionization events will be presented, including Keldysh, Strong-Field
and others. The aim is to both understand ionization from a
theoretical perspective and to put into context recent experimental
results. With this in mind, important phenomena created by strong
field ionization, such as high harmonic generation (HHG) and Rydberg
state creation will be explained. Among the fundamental physics
questions addressed will be the much debated question of tunneling
time in ionization, defining tunneling time and relating it to recent
experimental measurement and theoretical literature.
402-0464-00LOptical Properties of SemiconductorsW6 credits2V + 1UJ. Faist
AbstractThe rich physics of the optical properties of semiconductors, as well as the advanced processing available on these material, enabled numerous applications in everyday devices (semiconductor lasers, LEDs) as well as the realization of new physical concepts. This lecture aims at giving an introduction to this topic.
ContentThe rich physics of the optical properties of semiconductors, as well as the advanced processing available on these material, enabled numerous applications in everyday devices (semiconductor lasers, LEDs) as well as the realization of new physical concepts. This lecture aims at giving an introduction to this topic.
Bulk semiconductors:
- Interband bulk absorption - matrix element, kp approach. Relation to band structure and material
- Semiconductor under electron-hole injection: optical gain
- Low-level excitations: impurity states, excitons
- Free carrier absorption: Drude and quantum model
Quantum wells:
- Optical properties of quantum wells: matrix elements and selection rules
- Carrier dynamics, gain.
- Intersubband absorption
- Introduction to many-body properties
- Some non-linear properties of quantum wells
Quantum structures:
- Microcavities
- Introduction to quantum wires and dots
402-0404-00LLasersystems and ApplicationsW6 credits2V + 1UM. Sigrist
AbstractBasic physics, data and applications of various laser sources
ObjectiveStudents will know main features and selected applications of some important laser sources
ContentBased on "Quantum Electronics I" the main features of some important laser sources, particularly tunable laser systems, are discussed. Emphasis is put on gas lasers, dye lasers, semiconductor and solid state lasers. Laser applications in spectroscopy, sensing, material processing and medicine will be presented.
Lecture notesF. K. Kneubühl, M. W. Sigrist: "Laser", Vieweg+Teubner, 7. Auflage (2008), ISBN 978-3-8351-0145-6
Prerequisites / NoticeDepending on the students' preference, this course will be held in English or German.
402-0484-00LFrom Bose-Einstein Condensation to Synthetic Quantum Many-Body SystemsW6 credits2V + 1UT. Esslinger
AbstractThe ability to cool dilute gases to nano-Kelvin temperatures provides a unique access to macroscopic quantum phenomena such as Bose-Einstein condensation. This lecture will give an introduction to this dynamic field and insight into the current state of research, where synthetic quantum many-body systems are created and investigated.
ObjectiveThe lecture is intended to convey a basic understanding for the current research on quantum gases. Emphasis will be put on the connection between theory and experimental observation. It will enable students to read and understand publications in this field.
ContentThe non-interacting Bose gas
Interactions between atoms
The Bose-condensed state
Elementary excitations
Interference and Correlations
Fermi gases and Fermionic superfluidity
Optical lattices and the connection to solid state physics.
Lecture notesno script
LiteratureC. J. Pethick and H. Smith, Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute Gases, Cambridge.
Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics, Vol. CXL, ed. M. Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C.E. Wieman (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1999).
Prerequisites / NoticeFormer course title: "Quantum Gases"
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