The spring semester 2021 will certainly take place online until Easter. Exceptions: Courses that can only be carried out with on-site presence. Please note the information provided by the lecturers.

Search result: Catalogue data in Spring Semester 2016

Earth Sciences Master Information
Major in Geology
Compulsory Module in Analytical Methods in Earth Sciences
Students need to register for 6 credits in part A, and 6 credits in part B.
Part A: Microscopy Courses
Courses for this Module take place in autumn semester.
Part B: Methods
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4038-00LAnalysis of Rock TexturesW3 credits3GK. Kunze, N. Mancktelow
Abstract
Objective
Restricted Choice Modules Geology
Structural Geology
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4022-00LStructural Geology with Field CourseW+4 credits2V + 2PN. Mancktelow
AbstractTo provide a strong theoretical grounding in advanced aspects of structural geology, as well as the practical application of structural field mapping techniques in complexly deformed areas.
ObjectiveTo understand the theoretical basis and be able to practically apply methods of strain and kinematic analysis, to understand the development of mechanical instabilities such as folds in deformed rocks, and to have a basis for understanding the flow of polymineralic rocks with stronger clasts in a weaker matrix. The aim is to have a strong theretical basis for critically assessing and interpreting field observations.
ContentThe first half of the course consist of lectures and practical exercises in more advanced aspects of structural geology, including finite strain theory, finite strain measurement, kinematics, mechanical instability (e.g. folds and boudins), the behaviour of rigid particles in flow, perturbation flow, flanking structures, strain localization and fluid-rock interaction. The second half of the course is a 5-day field mapping exercise in a complexly deformed terrain, with the production of a map and a ca. 10-15 page report. The mark from the written exam at the end of the theory part and the mark for the field report are equally weighted in determining the final result.
Lecture notesA comprehensive script and set of exercises is provided as part of the course.
Prerequisites / NoticePrevious field mapping experience (field courses I, II and III for ETH Bachelor students or the equivalent for students admitted from elsewhere to the Master program)
651-4132-00LField Course IV: Non Alpine Field Course Restricted registration - show details
Does not take place this semester.
W+3 credits6Pto be announced
AbstractGeological Mapping in the Jebel Akhdar window in Oman; unconformity between the Permian cover and the Proterozoic basement; excursion in the Sumail ophiolite.
ObjectiveUnderstanding of the pre-Alpine history of the Arabian Plate (southern margin of Tethys).
ContentGeological mapping in groups of 2 in Proterozoic and Palaeozoic sediments; distinguishing mappable formations and their description; sedimentological and structural analysis; visiting an ophiolite sequence; presentation and discussion of literature material related to the working area; reconstruction of the history of the area.
Final group reports to be handed within the week 10-17 February in ZH.
Lecture notesWill be handed out.
LiteratureWill be distributed
Prerequisites / NoticeSuccessful participation in Field Courses I-III and success to all courses of the Bachelor.
651-4076-00LAnisotropical Behaviour and Rheology of Rocks
Does not take place this semester.
W3 credits2G
AbstractAnisotropy of rocks: from laboratory measurements to numerical prediction. Link between structural geology, petrology and geophysics.
Rheology of rocks: from laboratory measurements to flow laws used for numerical modelling. Special emphasis on plastic deformation.
ObjectiveGive laboratory experience for the determination of physical properties of rocks and comparison with the numerical prediction.
ContentDescription of physical properties (seismic, thermal and electrical conductivity, permeability etc.)
Elasticity in isotropic media.
Microscopic aspects of anisotropy.
Elasticity and seismic velocities in crystals.
Elasticity in polyphase rocks.
Exercises with software (Mainprice) to calculate seismic properties.
Methods for the measurements of seismic properties of rocks in Laboratory. Practice on the bench with the oscilloscope.
Anisotropy at different scales.

Rheology and deformation mechanism: from single phase to polyphase rocks (solid state).
Measurements and elaboration of LPO, SPO using OIM, Beartex, Surfor and Paror software.
Introduction to rheology and flow laws.
Deformation mechanism maps, crustal strength profiles and extrapolation from experiment to nature .
Experimental rock deformation techniques (stress-strain curves etc.).
Experimental deformation in Laboratory. Practice using uniaxial experimental set-up. Example in the brittle field.
Experimental deformation practical in the Paterson gas rig.
LiteratureProperties of earth and planetary materials at high pressure and temperature (M. Manghnani and T. Yagi eds.) (1998). AGU Geophys. Monograph. 101, Washington DC. p562

Handbook of physical constants (P. Sydney and JR Clark eds.) (1966). GSA Memoir 97, New Haven, p587

Wave fields in real media: wave peropagation in anisotropic, anelastic and porous media. M. Carcione. (2001). Pergamon press, Amsterdam, p390

Experimental rock deformation. The brittle field. M.S. Paterson. (1978). Springer Verlag, Berlin, p254.

Phisical properties of crystals. J.F. Nye (1972) University press, Oxford. p322.

Mineral physics and crystallography: a handbook of physical consants. (T.J. Ahrens ed.). 1995. AGU reference shelf 2, Washington DC, p354

Rock physics and phase relations: a handbook of physical consants. (T.J. Ahrens ed.). 1995. AGU reference shelf 3, Washington DC, p236

Introduction to the physics of the earth’s interior. J.-P. Poirier. (1991) Cambridge University press. Cambridge p264

Introduction to the physics of rocks. Y. Gueguen and V. Palciauskas.(1994). Princeton University press. Princeton p294

Physical properties of rocks and minerals. (R.S.Charmicael ed.). (1989). CRC press. Boca Raton, p741.

Seismic anisotropy in the earth. V. Babuska and M. Cara (1991). Kluwer. Dordrtecht. p217.
651-4038-00LAnalysis of Rock TexturesW3 credits3GK. Kunze, N. Mancktelow
Abstract
Objective
651-4050-00LExperimental Rock Deformation Restricted registration - show details
Does not take place this semester.
Number of participants limited to 12.
W3 credits2G
AbstractThe aim of the course is to illustrate how to determined flow laws of rocks from experiments and to compare the produced microstructures with naturally deformed rocks. The fundamental techniques of experimental rock deformation will be illustrated and tested on natural rock samples. The extrapolation to nature will be discussed.
ObjectiveGeodynamical modeling makes use of experimentally determined flow-laws. The aim of this course is to illustrate how to determined flow-laws of rocks from experiments and how to extrapolate to natural conditions. Since the time scale of laboratory experiments is several orders of magnitude faster than nature, we compare the microstructure of natural rocks with that produced during the experiments to prove that the same mechanisms are operating.
For this purpose, the fundamental techniques of experimental rock deformation will be both illustrated and tested on natural rock samples in the plastic deformation regime (high temperature) as well in the brittle regime. There will be enough time to test practically in the lab, to acquire the data, to correct for calibration and to process the data and finally to interpret the data.

The course is at Master student level, but will be useful for PhDs students who want to begin to work in experimental deformation or who want to know the meaning and the limitation of laboratory flow-laws for geodynamic modelling
Content1) Experimental deformation apparatus
- Gas apparatus
- Fluid apparatus
- Solid medium apparatus

2) Main parts of apparatus
- Mechanical, hydraulic
- Heating systems
- Sensors and data logging

3) Calibration of apparatus
- Distortion of the rig
- Calibration of transducers

4) Different type of tests
- Axial deformation
- Diagonal cut and torsion deformation
- Constant strain rate tests
- Creep tests
- Stepping tests (strain rate, temperature, stress)

5) Testing on natural rocks (e.g. Carrara marble)
- Room temperature: brittle failure
- High temperature: plastic deformation (on the Paterson apparatus)
- Data processing

6) Experimental rheology
- Deformation mechanisms
- Flow laws
- Deformation mechanism maps

7) Microstructures
- Analysis
- Comparison with nature
Lecture notesPower point presentations will be given when necessary
651-4134-00LTectonic GeomorphologyW6 credits2V + 6PS. F. Gallen, V. Picotti
AbstractCourse covers the theory and applications of tectonic geomorphology. Topics include the landscape response to an earthquake, use of fluvial terraces and other geomorphic markers to map uplift, methods of dating surfaces and landscapes, topographic evolution over active structures and landscape evolution of active mountain ranges. Methods include field mapping, DEM analysis and computer modeling.
ObjectiveTo learn theoretical and practical aspects of modern tectonic geomorphology. Field course, classroom and computer-based analysis will be combined to provide hands-on experience with geomorphic data, analysis and modeling techniques. We will work as a group to address the practical questions regarding evidence for recent deformation of the northern Apennines as an integrated field and modeling study. We will learn to use a variety of geomorphic and tectonic data to map uplift rates and patterns and use this to infer subsurface faulting kinematics.
ContentCourse includes a lecture component (in second half-semester) and a 9 day fieldtrip. Students should register for both components. Fieldtrip will involve collecting field data from active structures in the Northern Apennines. Lecture component will include theoretical background and analysis of data collected during fieldtrip.
LiteratureRequired Textbook: Tectonic Geomorphology, Burbank and Anderson, Blackwell.
Prerequisites / NoticeStudents should register for both lecture and field components (blockcourse). They will be graded together. Fieldtrip will be held during 1 week of the semester, typically in early May.
Sedimentology
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4150-00LSedimentary Rocks and Processes Restricted registration - show details
Does not take place this semester.
Number of participants limited to 26.
W+4 credits3PS. Willett
AbstractStudents will be trained for 10 days in the field analysis of sedimentary rocks. They will learn how to measure sections, they will combine facies analysis with analysis of sedimentary structures in the field. The area of study selected for this course changes from year to year.
ObjectiveThe students will be able to analyse and describe marine sedimentary rocks in the field and they will be able to reconstruct their depositional setting.
ContentThe students will learn how to analyze sedimentary rocks in the field. The field course will include investigations of marine carbonates and siliciclastics in an alpine setting.
LiteratureWill be distributed before the course
Prerequisites / NoticeBSc in Earth Sciences
Some experience in geological field mapping (Geological Field Course 1 and 2 or equivalent)
651-4002-00LStratigraphy and TimeW3 credits2GA. Gilli, P. Brack, H. Bucher, I. Hajdas, K. Hippe, A. M. Hirt, S. Ivy Ochs
AbstractAnalytical methods and concepts for the construction of a geochronological framework, including processes and geological rates.
ObjectiveThe course discusses methodologies for the construction of geochronological timescales, but goes beyound applied chronometry by advancing the understanding of types and rates of geological processes, the causes of contiguous and disjunct stratigraphies, placing of discrete events in temporal order.
ContentAnalytical methods and concepts for the construction of a geochronological framework (Global Standard Section and Point, GSSP), including biostratigraphy, eustatic sea-level variations, radioisotopic dating, cosmogenic isotopes, stable isotope and geochemical correlation, paleomagnetic stratigraphy, and carbon isotope dating.
Lecture notesHandouts
LiteratureDoyle, P. & Bennett, M.R. Editors (1998). Unlocking the stratigraphical record-advances in modern stratigraphy, John Wiley & Sons, 532 p. (useful introduction)
Ogg, J.G., Ogg, G., Gradstein, F.M. 2008. The concise geologic time scale. Cambridge University Press. 177 p. (newest geol. time scale)
Prerequisites / NoticeThe course is taught by a series of specialists on the different topics.
651-4902-00LQuaternary Geology and Geomorphology of the AlpsW3 credits2VS. Ivy Ochs, U. H. Fischer, K. Hippe
AbstractAfter a brief introduction to the scientific principles of glaciology, we survey the present state of knowledge on Pleistocene glacial periods and post-glacial landscape modification in the Alps. Emphasis is on understanding modes of formation of landscape elements attributable to glacial, glaciofluvial, periglacial, fluvial, hillslope, and mass wasting processes.
ObjectiveThrough a combination of lectures, classroom practical exercises, and field mapping of Quaternary landforms, an intuitive understanding of the formation and evolution of the landscape of the Alps and the forelands will be built up.
We focus on development of the following skills: landform recognition on remote imagery and in the field; depositional process identification based on sediment characterization; reconstruction of valley-scale geomorphological evolutionary sequences.
ContentThe following topics will be covered: glacier mass and energy balance; glacier motion; glacier hydrology; glacial erosion; glacial sediment balance; piedmont and valley glacier landsystems; till formation; glaciofluvial sediments; alluvial and debris-flow fan processes; Alpine rock slope failure landform/sediment associations; Alpine Quaternary stratigraphy; long-term uplift and denudation of the Alps.
Lecture notesSlides from the lectures will be made available.
LiteratureLists of key scientific articles will be given for each topic.
Relevant scientific articles will be distributed during the course.
Prerequisites / NoticeRequired attendance at lectures and excurisions (several 1-day excursions during the semester and one 3-day field mapping session during the summer).
Grading will be a combination of classroom participation, student presentations, practical exercises, field reports, and field maps from the excursions.
651-4004-00LOrganic Geochemistry and the Global Carbon CycleW3 credits2GT. I. Eglinton, M. Lupker
AbstractThe carbon cycle connects different reservoirs of C, including life on Earth, atmospheric CO2, and economically important geological reserves of C. Much of this C is in reduced (organic) form, and is composed of complex chemical structures that reflect diverse biological activity, processes and transformations.
ObjectiveA wealth of information is held within the complex organic molecules, both in the context of the contemporary carbon cycle and its links to is other biogeochemical cycles, as well as in relation to Earth's history, the evolution of life and climate on this planet.

In this course we will learn about the role of reduced forms of carbon in the global cycle, how these forms of carbon are produced, move around the planet, and become sequestered in the geological record, and how they can be used to infer biological activity and conditions on this planet in the geologic past. The course encompasses a range of spatial and temporal scales, from molecular to global, and from the contemporary environment to earliest life.
Prerequisites / NoticeThis course and the lecture course "651-4044-00L Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry" https://www.olat.uzh.ch/olat/url/RepositoryEntry/14217969664?guest=true&lang=en are good preparations for the combined Field-Lab Course ("651-4044-02 P Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry Field Course" and "651-4044-01 P Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry Lab Practical"). Details under https://www.olat.uzh.ch/olat/url/RepositoryEntry/14374567936?guest=true&lang=en
651-4134-00LTectonic GeomorphologyW6 credits2V + 6PS. F. Gallen, V. Picotti
AbstractCourse covers the theory and applications of tectonic geomorphology. Topics include the landscape response to an earthquake, use of fluvial terraces and other geomorphic markers to map uplift, methods of dating surfaces and landscapes, topographic evolution over active structures and landscape evolution of active mountain ranges. Methods include field mapping, DEM analysis and computer modeling.
ObjectiveTo learn theoretical and practical aspects of modern tectonic geomorphology. Field course, classroom and computer-based analysis will be combined to provide hands-on experience with geomorphic data, analysis and modeling techniques. We will work as a group to address the practical questions regarding evidence for recent deformation of the northern Apennines as an integrated field and modeling study. We will learn to use a variety of geomorphic and tectonic data to map uplift rates and patterns and use this to infer subsurface faulting kinematics.
ContentCourse includes a lecture component (in second half-semester) and a 9 day fieldtrip. Students should register for both components. Fieldtrip will involve collecting field data from active structures in the Northern Apennines. Lecture component will include theoretical background and analysis of data collected during fieldtrip.
LiteratureRequired Textbook: Tectonic Geomorphology, Burbank and Anderson, Blackwell.
Prerequisites / NoticeStudents should register for both lecture and field components (blockcourse). They will be graded together. Fieldtrip will be held during 1 week of the semester, typically in early May.
651-4080-00LFluvial SedimentologyW2 credits2GP. Huggenberger
AbstractUnderstanding the relationship between sediment transport, sediment sorting and sedimentary structures in coarse fluvial deposts.
ObjectiveDescription of coarse fluvial sediments, to understand the sedimentary processes of braided river systems, to get familiar with modeling concepts of braided river systems and sediment sorting processes, description and comparison of modern river sediments (systems) and ancient systems, discussion of applied aspects of fluvial sedimentology
Audiance: Students in Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences and Geography
Content- Advanced methods for the description of fluvial sediments of coarse fluvial systems, including geophysical methods
- Facies analysis and interpretation, description of sediment sorting, textures and structures of coarse fluvial systems
- Understanding sediment sorting and sediment transport processes of coarse gravelly rivers (the role of turbulence)
- Recognition of the relation between surface morphology (earth surface) and geological structures to recognize in outcrops or along cliffs
- Influence of preservation potential of sedimentary units in dynamic environments
- Landscape shaping processes
- Applied fluvial sedimentology
- recent developments in investigation methods
Lecture notesScript will be provided during semester (Text, Appendix, Figures)
LiteratureCalow, P. and Petts, G., 1995, The Rivers Handbook: Hydrological and Ecological Principles, Volume I and II
Miall, A. D., 1985, The Geology of Fluvial Deposits, Sedimentary Facies Analysis, Basin Analysis, and Petroleum Geology
Chiang, H. H. 1992, Fluvial Processes in River Engineering
Best, J. L. and Bristow, C. S., 1993, Braided Rivers, Geological Society Special Publication, No 75.
Clifford, N. J. et al. 1993, Turbulence, Perspectives on Flow and Sediment Transport, Wiley, 360 p.
- futher references will be given during the course
Clifford, N. J. and French, J. R. and Hardisty, J., 1993, Turbulence, Perspectives on Flow and Sediment Transport
Bridge, John S., 2003, Rivers and Floodplains; Forms, Processes and Sedimentary Record
Prerequisites / NoticeStudy of selected papers related to the course
Requirements: Basic courses in Earth Sciences

Working Excursions as important topic of the course
101-0302-00LClays in Geotechnics: Problems and Applications
Remark: same course content as 651-4078-00L Clay Mineralogy (provided untill FS15).
W3 credits2GM. Plötze
AbstractThis course gives a comprehensive introduction in clay mineralogy, properties, characterising and testing methods as well as applied aspects and problems of clays and clay minerals in geotechniques. This course comprises of lectures with exercises, case studies, and demonstrated experiments.
ObjectiveUpon successful completion of this course the student is able to:
- Describe clay minerals and their fundamental properties
- Describe/propose methods for characterization of clays and clay minerals
- Draw conclusion about specific properties of clays with a focus to their potential use, problematics and things to consider in geotechniques and engineering geology.
Content- Introduction to clays and clay minerals (importance and application in geosciences, industry and everyday life)
- Origin of clays (formation of clays and clay minerals, geological origin)
- Clay mineral structure, classification and identification incl. methods for investigation (e.g. XRD)
- Properties of clay materials, characterisation and quantification incl. methods for investigation (cation exchange, rheology, plasticity, shearing, swelling, permeability, retardation and diffusion)
- Clay Minerals in geotechniques: Problems and applications (e.g. soil mechanics, barriers, slurry walls)
Lecture notesLecture slides and further documents will be available in the lecture
Palaeoclimatology
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4004-00LOrganic Geochemistry and the Global Carbon CycleW+3 credits2GT. I. Eglinton, M. Lupker
AbstractThe carbon cycle connects different reservoirs of C, including life on Earth, atmospheric CO2, and economically important geological reserves of C. Much of this C is in reduced (organic) form, and is composed of complex chemical structures that reflect diverse biological activity, processes and transformations.
ObjectiveA wealth of information is held within the complex organic molecules, both in the context of the contemporary carbon cycle and its links to is other biogeochemical cycles, as well as in relation to Earth's history, the evolution of life and climate on this planet.

In this course we will learn about the role of reduced forms of carbon in the global cycle, how these forms of carbon are produced, move around the planet, and become sequestered in the geological record, and how they can be used to infer biological activity and conditions on this planet in the geologic past. The course encompasses a range of spatial and temporal scales, from molecular to global, and from the contemporary environment to earliest life.
Prerequisites / NoticeThis course and the lecture course "651-4044-00L Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry" https://www.olat.uzh.ch/olat/url/RepositoryEntry/14217969664?guest=true&lang=en are good preparations for the combined Field-Lab Course ("651-4044-02 P Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry Field Course" and "651-4044-01 P Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry Lab Practical"). Details under https://www.olat.uzh.ch/olat/url/RepositoryEntry/14374567936?guest=true&lang=en
651-4002-00LStratigraphy and TimeW3 credits2GA. Gilli, P. Brack, H. Bucher, I. Hajdas, K. Hippe, A. M. Hirt, S. Ivy Ochs
AbstractAnalytical methods and concepts for the construction of a geochronological framework, including processes and geological rates.
ObjectiveThe course discusses methodologies for the construction of geochronological timescales, but goes beyound applied chronometry by advancing the understanding of types and rates of geological processes, the causes of contiguous and disjunct stratigraphies, placing of discrete events in temporal order.
ContentAnalytical methods and concepts for the construction of a geochronological framework (Global Standard Section and Point, GSSP), including biostratigraphy, eustatic sea-level variations, radioisotopic dating, cosmogenic isotopes, stable isotope and geochemical correlation, paleomagnetic stratigraphy, and carbon isotope dating.
Lecture notesHandouts
LiteratureDoyle, P. & Bennett, M.R. Editors (1998). Unlocking the stratigraphical record-advances in modern stratigraphy, John Wiley & Sons, 532 p. (useful introduction)
Ogg, J.G., Ogg, G., Gradstein, F.M. 2008. The concise geologic time scale. Cambridge University Press. 177 p. (newest geol. time scale)
Prerequisites / NoticeThe course is taught by a series of specialists on the different topics.
651-4054-00LMicropalaeontologyW3 credits2GR. Schiebel
AbstractGeneral introduction to the various groups of microfossils, their morphology, taxonomy, biology, ecology, and application in such fields as biostratigraphy, palaeoecology, palaeoceanography, and the solution of other geological problems. Practical exercises and demonstrations of material will involve the examination of picked and strew-mounted microscope slides.
ObjectiveAt the end of the module you will be able to:
1. Assign a microfossil to its major taxonomic group (e.g. foraminifer, ostracod, dinoflagellate, palynomorph, etc.).
2. Be aware of, and to recognise, the main morphological and compositional features which allow assignation of an individual fossil to each group.
3. Draw basic stratigraphic conclusions about microfossil assemblages (e.g. age of rock unit, correlations, etc.)
4. Deduce paleoecological and/or paleoceanographic interpretations from different assemblages of microfossils.
5. Understand the applicability of particular microfossil groups to particular lithologies and particular geological time periods.
6. Determine which microfossil groups are most applicable to the solution of a variety of particular geological problems.
ContentLectures will introduce the various microfossil groups and detail their utility as important indicators of past environments by examining the ecology of living microplankton taxa and extrapolating this to the fossil record (paleoecology, paleoceanography). The applicability of different microfossil groups in providing both relative timescales (through zonal schemes) and biostratigraphic correlation will be detailed, as will the role of certain microfossils in understanding evolutionary processes. Microplankton as agents of global environmental change will also be investigated, especially with regard to fluxes of CaCO3 and C and hence to CO2 in the atmosphere. The microfossil groups which will be studied in the above context are those which form mineralised skeletons (calcareous, siliceous, phosphatic) and the organic-walled microfossils (known as palynomorphs).
LiteratureARMSTRONG, H.A. & BRASIER, M.D. (2005). Microfossils - Second Edition. 296 p., Blackwell Publishing Ltd. (new edition of the Brasier 1980 book below)

BIGNOT, G. (1985). Elements of micropalaeontology. Graham & Trotman, London. (generally good, all round text, quite adequate as an introduction to many groups)

BRASIER, M.D. (1980). Microfossils. George Allen & Unwin. (First Edition, rather dated and some chapters are very poor)

HAQ, B.U. & BOERSMA, A. (1998). Introduction to marine micropalaeontology. Elsevier, Amsterdam. (also the earlier 1978 version which is a little dated, but good for certain chapters such as radiolaria, which are less well covered in other texts)

JANSONIUS, J. & McGREGOR, D.C. (eds.) (1996). Palynology: principles & applications. 3 volumes. AASP Foundation, Austin, TX. (The most comprehensive palynological text: at 1330 pages you'd expect it to be!)

LIPPS, J.H. (ed.) (1992). Fossil prokaryotes and protists. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. (esp. dinoflagellates)

TRAVERSE, A. (1988). Paleopalynology. Unwin Hyman, London. (not surprisingly all about palynology, exhaustive, but DO NOT read the spore/pollen morphology sections! Second edition publ. in 2007)
Prerequisites / NoticeA general background knowledge of palaeontological methods and principles. No prior knowledge of microfossils is necessary.
651-4056-00LLimnogeologyW3 credits2GA. Gilli, N. Dubois, K. Kremer
AbstractThis course links lakes, their subsurface and their environment. It will be discussed how lake sediments record past environmental changes (e.g. climate, human impact, natural hazards) and how lake sediments can be used to reconstruct these changes. Emphasis is also given on the modern limnologic processes essential in interpreting the fossil record. With 1 or 2-day field course on Lake Lucerne.
ObjectiveStudents are able to
- explain and discuss the role of lake sediments as archives of environmental change.
- plan an own limnogeologic campaign, i.e. finding, recovering, analyzing and interpreting the sedimentary lake archive to solve a particular scientific question.
- examine the complexity of a lake system with all its connection to the environment.
- relate subaerial processes with subaquatic processes.
- identify processes around and in lakes causing natural hazards.
ContentContent of the course:
Introduction - Lakes, the small oceans
History of Limnogeology.
Limnogeologic campaigns
The water column: Aquatic physics (currents, waves, oscillations, etc.).
Sediments caught in the water: sediment traps
Geophysical survey methods (multibeam bathymetry, seismics)
Large open perialpine lakes.
Laminations in lake sediments: Clastic vs. biochemical varves.
Hydrologically closed lake systems
Chronostratigraphic dating of lake sediments
Lake sediments as proxies for climate change
Lake sediments as recorder of anthropogenic impact

The class includes a 1- or 2-day field practica on Lake Lucerne.
Introduction to themes of Lake Lucerne field course.
Limnogeological methods on the lake and in the laboratory: various sampling and surveying techniques (water analysis, seismic surveying, sediment coring, laboratory analyses).
Seismic-to-core correlation and interpretation
Lecture notesWill be distributed in each class unit.
LiteratureWill be distributed in each class unit.
Prerequisites / NoticeCredit points and grade will be given based on a written report about the field course.
651-4226-00LGeochemical and Isotopic Tracers of the Earth SystemW+3 credits2VD. Vance
AbstractThis unit discusses the geochemical approaches used to understand the dynamics of the surface Earth, now and in the past. Emphasis is placed on gaining a basic understanding of how the tracers work, e.g. on the modern Earth. Case studies will be used to appreciate what we can learn about the past, in particular the major changes that the surface Earth system has undergone over Earth history.
ObjectiveThis unit is designed with the particular aim of providing a firm grounding in the geochemical methods used to observe and trace the Earth System, now and in the past. The approach in lectures will be the pursuit of a sound understanding of the controlling physical and chemical factors of each method, to encourage students to think about their application and interpretation from first principles. Exercises will provide an opportunity to analyse real data, to understand their meaning, and to quantitatively interpret them in the context of simple box models.
ContentMost of the important geochemical and isotopic methods used to study the surface Earth will be covered, including: tracing the hydrological cycle using stable isotopes , geochemical and isotopic tracing of the carbon cycle, the chemistry of aerosols in the atmosphere, using boron isotopes to understand the oceanic carbonate system, using radiogenic isotopes as surface Earth tracers (including U-series, Sr-Nd-Pb etc), the silica cycle at the surface Earth (including silicon isotopes), trace metals and their isotopes (focusing on surface Earth redox).

Real data will be woven through all of these but case studies using geochemical data will come from e.g. the
Quaternary (ice cores, ocean sediments and speleothems), the history of Cenozoic CO2 , Mesozoic OAEs, the early oxygenation of the Earth.
Lecture notesSlides of lectures will be available.
Biogeochemistry
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4044-00LGeomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry Information W+3 credits2GT. I. Eglinton, T. R. R. Bontognali, C. Vasconcelos
AbstractMicroorganisms have helped to shape the Earth over almost 4 billion years making it habitable for higher forms of life. Recent advances in our understanding of how microbial life impacts the Earth have led to a newly evolving field of geomicrobiology and associated biogeochemistry, which links the biosphere with the geosphere.
ObjectiveThe course aims to provide an introduction to geomicrobiology and to describe how microbial communities have influenced biogeochemical cycles and mineralogical processes through geologic time.

This lecture course is supplemented by an independent field-lab-course from August 29 to September 9. For details see lecture catalog ETHZ 651-4044-02L and ETHZ 651-4044-01L.
ContentThe lecture course covers the following topics: 1. Microbial properties and diversity, 2. Microbial metabolism that relates to geochemistry, 3. Cell surface reactivity, 4. Sediment biogeochemistry, 5. Biomineral formation in stromatolites, 6. Microbial weathering, 7. Biomarker geochemistry and 8. Microbial life in Earth history. The course will include laboratory practicals in geomicrobiology and geochemistry.
A detailed description of the course layout will become available on OLAT under https://www.olat.uzh.ch/olat/url/RepositoryEntry/14217969664?guest=true&lang=en
at the beginning of January.
Lecture notesPower point slides will be distributed during the course with recommended reading lists.
Access to the lecture notes requires that students sign up in the learning resources "Geomicrobiology_16" in OLAT (available in January) via the internet address given above.
LiteratureRecommended References are listed in the "Geomicrobiology_16" website on OLAT (https://www.olat.uzh.ch/olat/url/RepositoryEntry/14217969664?guest=true&lang=en) and research papers and reviews to specific topics are available in the File Exchange folders.
A number of handbooks will be on display in the library (shelf on the right hand side) for use in the library only.
Prerequisites / NoticeTiming: The course starts on February 22 and ends on May 30. Prerequisites: Recall and remember what you learned in introductory chemistry and biology and apply it to geochemistry and microbial biochemistry.

The students will make oral presentations on selected topics based on the specific laboratory experiments.

This course and the lecture course "651-4004-00L Organic Geochemistry and the Global Carbon Cycle" are recommended prerequisites for participating in the combined Field-Lab courses ("651-4044-02 P Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry Field Course" and "651-4044-01 P Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry Lab Practical"). Details under https://www.olat.uzh.ch/olat/url/RepositoryEntry/14374567936?guest=true&lang=en
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