Search result: Catalogue data in Autumn Semester 2016

Doctoral Department of Environmental Sciences Information
Agricultural Sciences
Graduate Programme in Plant Sciences
751-4003-01LCurrent Topics in Grassland Sciences (HS) Information W2 credits2SN. Buchmann
AbstractResearch results in agro- and forest ecosystem sciences will be presented by experienced researchers as well as Ph.D. and graduate students. Citation classics as well as recent research results will be discussed. Topics will range from plant ecophysiology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry to management aspects in agro- and forest ecosystems.
ObjectiveStudents will be able to understand and evaluate experimental design and data interpretation of on-going studies, be able to critically analyze published research results, practice to present and discuss results in the public, and gain a broad knowledge of recent research and current topics in agro- and forest ecosystem sciences.
ContentResearch results in agro- and forest ecosystem sciences will be presented by experienced researchers as well as Ph.D. and graduate students. Citation classics as well as recent research results will be discussed. Topics will range from plant ecophysiology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry to management aspects in agro- and forest ecosystems.
Lecture notesnone
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites: Basic knowledge of plant ecophysiology, terrestrial ecology and management of agro- and forest ecosystems. Course will be taught in English.
751-5123-00LRhizosphere Ecology Information Restricted registration - show details
Number of participants limited to 18.

Prerequisites: Only students who have passed the courses 751-3401-00L Pflanzenernährung I and 751-3402-00L Pflanzenernährung II - Integriertes Nährstoffmanagement can be admitted to this course.
W4 credits4GH. A. Gamper, T. I. McLaren
AbstractThis course is about the physical, chemical, and biological processes in the rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth. Effects of fertilisers, companion plants, and microbial symbionts, and other microbes on nutrient cycling and plant uptake are discussed. An "intercropping" experiment in the glasshouse is used as a model to check for rhizosphere effects on plant growth and mineral nutrition.
ObjectiveTo gain a holistic understanding of resource-driven and regulatory processes in agricultural and natural ecosystems.
Develop skills on the critical analysis of scientific papers.
Define explanatory hypotheses, identify knowledge gaps for further investigations.
Carry out a multi-disciplinary experiment that involves aspects of soil, (micro-)biology, plant physiology, pathology, and ecology.
Develop manual skills in the set up of a glasshouse experiment, in soil and plant analyses, and in isolation and DNA-based characterisation of rhizobia.
Gain insights on basic methods to analyse (bio-)chemical, molecular genetic, and graphical data.
Discuss and interpret data in the context of the literature.
Prepare a research report in the format of a scientific paper and a poster in the format of a conference paper, partially alone and partially in small groups, using data obtained from the glasshouse experiment.
ContentThis course is designed to stimulate thinking and promote critical analysis of important processes that occur in the rhizosphere. As part of this course, the knowledge acquired will be used for analysing and interpreting experimental data, as well as, preparing a scientific report and conference-type poster.

The course will cover the relative importance of spatial scales and various physicochemical and microbiological dynamics as influenced by roots. We will discuss root traits and activities that influence the immediately root-surrounding soil and thereby contribute to mineral nutrient mobilization and immobilization. An overview of the most relevant root-microbe symbioses for agroecosystems will be provided and root and microbial traits discussed, which could be of use in efforts towards utilization of intercropping and bioinoculants as a possible means of reducing energetically expensive inputs to farming systems. A special emphasis will be given to the importance of physicochemical features of soils and the chemical forms (= species) of elements important for plant uptake.

Practical experience will be gained with setting up a glasshouse experiment, soil and root sampling, basic soil and plant analyses, isolation of rhizobia, determination of the number of colony forming units (CFU), assays to screen for phosphorus and zinc solubilizing bacteria, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) of host range determining symbiosis-specific genes.

In short, the processes dealt with in this course occur on a small-scale and are generally (bio)chemical and microbiological in nature. Furthermore, they are generally not taken into account using current methods of agronomic management for plant production. However, they are increasingly being recognized as a potentially useful means of obtaining a resource-efficient and hence, economically and environmentally sustainable agricultural system, including for ecosystem restoration. Therefore, the course will invite for critical reflections and exemplify challenges in translating knowledge from scientific studies and ecology into application for plant production.
Lecture notesFor documentation, lecture slides and laboratory protocols will continuously be uploaded to the directory '751-5123-00L Rhizosphere Ecology' on the electronic document exchange platform ILIAS, LDA-ELBA:
LiteratureYork LM, Carminati A, Mooney SJ, Ritz K, Bennett MJ (2016) The holistic rhizosphere: integrating zones, processes, and semantics in the soil influenced by roots. Journal of Experimental Botany, doi: 10.1093/jxb/erw108.

Lynch, James M; and de Leij, Frans (May 2012) Rhizosphere. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester.
DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000403.pub2

Kuzyakov Y, Blagodatskaya E. (2015) Microbial hotspots and hot moments in soil: Concept and review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 83: 184-199.

Cardon, CG, Whitbeck, JL (Eds) (2007) The rhizospere: An ecological perspective, Academic Press, pp. 232, ISBN: 978-0-12-088775-0

White PJ, George TS, Dupuy LX, Karley AJ, Valentine TA, Wiesel L, Wishart J. (2013) Root traits for infertile soils. Frontiers in Plant Science 4, doi: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00193.

Neumann G, George TS, Plassard C (2009) Strategies and methods for studying the rhizosphere - the plant science toolbox. Plant and Soil 321: 431-456.

Morgan, J. B. & Connolly, E. L. (2013) Plant-soil interactions: Nutrient uptake. Nature Education Knowledge 4(8):2 Link

Pinton, R., Varanini, Z., Nannipieri, P. (2007) The rhizosphere: Biochemistry and organic substances at the soil-plant interface, Taylor & Francis, London, UK, pp. 472

Hinsinger, P., Bengough, A. G., Vetterlein, D., Young, I. M. (2009): Rhizosphere: biophysics, biogeochemistry and ecological relevance. Plant and Soil 321, 117-152.

Beeckman, T. (Ed) (2013) Plant roots: The hidden half, 4th ed., CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK, pp. 848

van der Heijden, Sanders (Eds) (2002) Mycorrhizal ecology, Ecological Studies 157, Springer, Berlin, pp. 469, ISCBN 978-3-540-00204-8

Kuzyakov Y, Xu X. (2013) Competition between roots and microorganisms for nitrogen: mechanisms and ecological relevance. New Phytologist 198: 656-669.

Hinsinger, P., Betencourt, E., Bernard, L., Brauman, A., Plassard, C., Shen, J. B., Tang, X. Y., Zhang, F. S. (2011) P for two, sharing a scarce resource: Soil phosphorus acquisition in the rhizosphere of intercropped species. Plant Physiology 156, 1078-1086.

Bender SF, Wagg C, van der Heijden MGA (2016) An underground revolution: biodiversity and soil ecological engineering for agricultural sustainability. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2016.02.016.

Withers PJA, Sylvester-Bradley R, Jones DL, Healey JR, Talboys PJ. (2014) Feed the crop not the soil: rethinking phosphorus management in the food chain. Environmental Science & Technology 8: 6523-6530.

How microbes can feed the world (American Academy of Microbiology) Link

Can microbes feed the world? (Society for general microbiology) Link

Popular science entries to the significance of processes in the rhizosphere:

Ecological understanding (Second Edition)
The nature of theory and the theory of nature
Prerequisites / NoticeWe ask all course attendees of the agricultural sciences to have passed the exams at the end of the lectures Plant Nutrition I and II (Nutrient cycling in agroecosystems) by Prof. E. Frossard. All others, have to have successfully worked through the e-learning module Plant Nutrition I by Prof. E. Frossard:
Remark: The course is designed to be complementary to those on Radioisotopes in Plant Nutrition (751-3405-00L), and Nutrient Fluxes in Soil-Plant Systems (751-3404-00L), although some thematic overlaps cannot be avoided. Special emphasis is given to plant-microbe-soil interactions and an appreciation of whole plant functioning in the ecological context. You will familiarize yourself with bacterial isolation, cultivation, enumeration, as well as, molecular detection, discrimination and identification techniques for rhizosphere and root-associated microbes.
Marking will consider the efforts and outcome of work by the individual participant as well as results of work in small groups. Activities for the course will result in posters and reports in the format of a conference and scientific paper. Reports will be due on Friday January 6, 2017.
Maximum number of participants: 18 (Attention: Admission will be on a first come first served basis - inscribe early!).
Students of D-USYS will be reimbursed via bank transfer for train and bus tickets of the zones 121 and 122 (Please send all tickets with the bank details to Christiane Gujan (Link).
551-0205-00LChallenges in Plant Sciences Information
Number of participants limited to 40.
W2 credits2KW. Gruissem, C. Sánchez-Rodríguez, further lecturers
AbstractThe colloquium introduces students to the disciplines in plant sciences and provides integrated knowledge from the molecular level to ecosystems and from basic research to applications, making use of the synergies between the different research groups of the PSC. The colloquium offers a unique chance to approach interdisciplinary topics as a challenge in the field of plant sciences.
ObjectiveMajor objectives of the colloquium are:

introduction of graduate students and Master students to the broad field of plant sciences
promotion of an interdisciplinary and integrative teaching program
promotion of active participation and independent work of students
promotion of presentation and discussion skills
increased interaction among students and professors
ContentChallenges in Plant Sciences will cover the following topics:
Chemical communication among plants, insect and pathogens.
Specificity in hormone signaling.
Genetic networks.
Plant-plant interactions.
Resilience of tropical ecosystems.
Regulatory factors controlling cell wall formation.
Chlorophyll breakdown.
Innate immunity.
Disease resistance genes.
Sustainable agroecosystems.
Environmental Sciences
Atmosphere and Climate
402-0572-00LAerosols I: Physical and Chemical PrinciplesW4 credits2V + 1UM. Gysel, U. Baltensperger, H. Burtscher
AbstractAerosols I deals with basic physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles. The importance of aerosols in the atmosphere and in other fields is discussed.
ObjectiveKnowledge of basic physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles and their importance in the atmosphere and in other fields
Contentphysical and chemical properties of aerosols, aerosol dynamics (diffusion, coagulation...), optical properties (light scattering, -absorption, -extinction), aerosol production, physical and chemical characterization.
Lecture notesmateriel is distributed during the lecture
Literature- Kulkarni, P., Baron, P. A., and Willeke, K.: Aerosol Measurement - Principles, Techniques, and Applications. Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey, 2011.
- Hinds, W. C.: Aerosol Technology: Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1999.
- Colbeck I. (ed.) Physical and Chemical Properties of Aerosols, Blackie Academic & Professional, London, 1998.
- Seinfeld, J. H. and Pandis, S. N.: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Hoboken, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006
701-1253-00LAnalysis of Climate and Weather Data Information W3 credits2GC. Frei
AbstractObservation networks and numerical climate and forcasting models deliver large primary datasets. The use of this data in practice and in research requires specific techniques of statistical data analysis. This lecture introduces a range of frequently used techniques, and enables students to apply them and to properly interpret their results.
ObjectiveObservation networks and numerical climate and forcasting models deliver large primary datasets. The use of this data in practice and in research requires specific techniques of statistical data analysis. This lecture introduces a range of frequently used techniques, and enables students to apply them and to properly interpret their results.
ContentIntroduction into the theoretical background and the practical application of methods of data analysis in meteorology and climatology.

Topics: exploratory methods, hypothesis tests, analysis of climate trends, measuring the skill of climate and forecasting models, analysis of extreme events, principal component analysis and maximum covariance analysis.

The lecture also provides an introduction into R, a programming language and graphics tool frequently used for data analysis in meteorology and climatology. During hands-on computer exercises the student will become familiar with the practical application of the methods.
Lecture notesDocumentation and supporting material include:
- documented view graphs used during the lecture
- excercise sets and solutions
- R-packages with software and example datasets for exercise sessions

All material is made available via the lecture web-page.
LiteratureSuggested literature:
- Wilks D.S., 2005: Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Science. (2nd edition). International Geophysical Series, Academic Press Inc. (London)
- Coles S., 2001: An introduction to statistical modeling of extreme values. Springer, London. 208 pp.
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites: Atmosphäre, Mathematik IV: Statistik, Anwendungsnahes Programmieren.
701-1235-00LCloud Microphysics Information Restricted registration - show details
Number of participants limited to 16.
W4 credits2V + 1UU. Lohmann, Z. A. Kanji
AbstractClouds are a fascinating atmospheric phenomenon central to the hydrological cycle and the Earth`s climate. Interactions between cloud particles can result in precipitation, glaciation or evaporation of the cloud depending on its microstructure and microphysical processes.
ObjectiveThe learning objective of this course is that students understand the formation of clouds and precipitation and can apply learned principles to interpret atmospheric observations of clouds and precipitation.
Lecture notesThis course will be designed as a reading course in 1-2 small groups of 8 students maximum. It will be based on the textbook below. The students are expected to read chapters of this textbook prior to the class so that open issues, fascinating and/or difficult aspects can be discussed in depth.
LiteraturePao K. Wang: Physics and dynamics of clouds and precipitation, Cambridge University Press, 2012
Prerequisites / NoticeTarget group: Master students in Atmosphere and Climate
701-1221-00LDynamics of Large-Scale Atmospheric Flow Information W4 credits2V + 1UH. Wernli, S. Pfahl
AbstractDynamic, synoptic Meteorology
ObjectiveUnderstanding the dynamics of large-scale atmospheric flow
ContentDynamical Meteorology is concerned with the dynamical processes of the
earth's atmosphere. The fundamental equations of motion in the atmosphere will be discussed along with the dynamics and interactions of synoptic system - i.e. the low and high pressure systems that determine our weather. The motion of such systems can be understood in terms of quasi-geostrophic theory. The lecture course provides a derivation of the mathematical basis along with some interpretations and applications of the concept.
Lecture notesDynamics of large-scale atmospheric flow
Literature- Holton J.R., An introduction to Dynamic Meteorogy. Academic Press, fourth edition 2004,
- Pichler H., Dynamik der Atmosphäre, Bibliographisches Institut, 456 pp. 1997
Prerequisites / NoticePhysics I, II, Environmental Fluid Dynamics
701-1251-00LLand-Climate Dynamics Information W3 credits2GS. I. Seneviratne, E. L. Davin
AbstractThe purpose of this course is to provide fundamental background on the role of land surface processes (vegetation, soil moisture dynamics, land energy and water balances) for the climate system. The course consists of 2 contact hours per week, including 2 computer exercises.
ObjectiveThe students can understand the role of land processes and associated feedbacks for the climate system.
Lecture notesPowerpoint slides will be made available
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites: Introductory lectures in atmospheric and climate science
Atmospheric physics -> Link
Climate systems -> Link
701-1237-00LSolar Ultraviolet RadiationW1 credit1VJ. Gröbner
AbstractThe lecture will introduce the student to the thematics of solar ultraviolet radiation and its effects on the atmosphere and the biosphere. The lecture will cover the modeling and the measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation. The instruments used for solar radiation measurements will also be introduced.
ObjectiveThe lecture should enable the student to understand the specific problematics related to solar ultraviolet radiation and its interaction with the atmosphere and the biosphere.
Content1) Einführung in die Problematik – Motivation
Begriffe (UV-C, UV-B, UV-A,...)
Einfluss der UV Strahlung auf Biosphäre (Mensch, Tier, Pflanzen)
Positive und schädliche Effekte
Wirkungsspektrum, Konzept, Beispiele

2) Geschichtlicher Rückblick
Rayleigh - Himmelsblau
1907: Dorno, PMOD
1970: Bener, PMOD
1980: Berger, Erythemal sunburn meter
1990- : State of the Art

3) Extraterrestrische UV Strahlung
Variabilität (Spektral, zeitlich, relativ zu Totalstrahlung)
Satellitenmessungen, Übersicht

4) Einfluss der Atmosphäre auf die solare UV Strahlung
Beinflussende Parameter (Ozon, Wolken, ...)
Ozon, Stratosphärisches versus troposphärisches
Geschichte: Ozondepletion, Polare Ozonlöcher und Einfluss auf die UV Strahlung
Trends (Ozon, Wolken, Aerosole)
Radiation Amplification Factor (RAF)

5-6) Strahlungstransfer
Modellierung, DISORT
libRadtran, TUV, FASTRT
Vergleiche mit Messungen
3-D Modellierung (MYSTIC)
Beer-Lambert Gesetz

7) Strahlungsmessungen
Instrumente zur Strahlungsmessung
Messgrössen: Irradiance (global, direct, diffus), radiance, aktinischer Fluss
Horizontale und geneigte Flächen
Generelle Problematik: Freiluftmessungen...

8) Solare UV Strahlungsmessungen
Problematik: Dynamik, Spektrale Variabilität, Alterung
Spezifische Instrumente: Filterradiometer, Spektroradiometer, Dosimetrie
Übersicht Aufbau und Verwendung

9-10) Solare UV Strahlungsmessgeräte
Spektroradiometer, Filterradiometer (Breit und schmalbandig)
Kalibriermethoden (Im Labor, im Feld)
Qualitätssicherung, Messkampagnen

11-12) Auswerteverfahren
Atmosphärische Parameter aus Strahlungsmessungen
Ozon, SO2
Albedo (Effektiv versus Lokal)
Aerosol Parameter (AOD, SSA, g, Teilchenverteilungen)
Zusammenspiel Messungen - Modellierung
Aktinische UV-Strahlungsflüsse und Bestimmung von atmosphärischen Photolysefrequenzen

13) UV Klimatologie
UV Klimatologie durch Messnetze
UV Klimatologie durch Satellitenmessungen am Beispiel von TOMS
Modellierung am Beispiel Meteosat-JRC
UV Rekonstruktionen

14) Aktuelle Forschungen
Internationale Projekte, Stand der Forschung
701-1233-00LStratospheric Chemistry Information W4 credits2V + 1UT. Peter, A. Stenke
AbstractThermodynamical and kinetic basics: bi- and terrmolecular reactions, photo-dissociation. Chemical family concept. Chapman chemistry. Radical reactions of oxygen species with nitric oxide, active halogens and odd hydrogen. Ozone depletion cycles. Methane depletion and ozone production in the lower stratosphere. Heterogeneous chemistry on background aerosol. Chemistry and dynamics of the ozone hole.
ObjectiveThe lecture gives an overview on the manifold reactions which occur in the gas phase, in stratospheric aerosol droplets and in polar cloud particles. The focus is on the chemistry of stratospheric ozone and its influence through natural and anthropogenic effects. Especially the intercontinental air traffic and the ozone depletion caused by FCKW CFC in the mid-latitude and the polar regions as well as coupling with the greenhouse effect.
ContentShort presentation of thermodynamical and kinetic basics of chemical reactions: bi- and terthermo rmolecular reactions, photo-dissociation. Introduction to the chemical family concept: active species, their source gases and reservoir gases. Detailed treatment of the pure oxygen family (odd oxygen) according to the Chapman chemistry. Radical reactions of the oxygen species with nitric oxide, active halogens (chlorine and bromine) and odd hydrogen. Ozone depletion cycles. Methane depletion and ozone production in the lower stratosphere (photo-smog reactions). Heterogeneous chemistry on the background aerosol and its significance for heavy air traffic. Chemistry and dynamics of the ozone hole: Formation of polar stratospheric clouds and chloride activation.
Lecture notesDocuments are provided in the contact hours.
Literature- Basseur, G. und S. Solomon, Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 3rd Rev edition (December 30, 2005).
- John H. Seinfeld and Spyros N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, Wiley, New York, 1998.
- WMO, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Report No.47, Geneva, 2003.
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites: Basics in physical chemistry are required and an overview equivalent to the bachelor course in atmospheric chemistry (lecture 701-0471-01) is expected.

701-1233-00 V starts in the first week of the semester. The exercises 701-1233-00 U will start only in the 2nd week of the semester.
701-1211-01LMaster's Seminar: Atmosphere and Climate 1 Information W3 credits2SH. Joos, O. Stebler, F. Tummon, M. A. Wüest
AbstractIn this seminar, the process of writing a scientific proposal will be
introduced. The essential elements of a proposal, including the peer
review process, will be outlined and class exercises will train
scientific writing skills. Knowledge exchange between class
participants is promoted through the preparation of a master thesis
proposal and evaluation of each other's work.
ObjectiveTraining scientific writing skills.
ContentIn this seminar, the process of writing a scientific proposal will be
introduced. The essential elements of a proposal, including the peer
review process, will be outlined and class exercises will train
scientific writing skills. Knowledge exchange between class
participants is promoted through the preparation of a master thesis
proposal and evaluation of each other's work.
Prerequisites / NoticeAttendance is mandatory.
651-4095-01LColloquium Atmosphere and Climate 1 Restricted registration - show details W1 credit1KH. Joos, C. Schär, D. N. Bresch, N. Gruber, R. Knutti, U. Lohmann, T. Peter, S. I. Seneviratne, H. Wernli, M. Wild
AbstractThe colloquium is a series of scientific talks by prominent invited speakers assembling interested students and researchers from around Zürich. Students take part of the scientific discussions.
ObjectiveThe students are exposed to different atmospheric science topics and learn how to take part in scientific discussions.
Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics
701-1341-00LWater Resources and Drinking WaterW3 credits2GS. Hug, M. Berg, F. Hammes, U. von Gunten
AbstractThe course covers qualitative (chemistry and microbiology) and quantitative aspects of drinking water from the resource to the tap. Natural processes, anthropogenic pollution, legislation of groundwater and surface water and of drinking water as well as water treatment will be discussed for industrialized and developing countries.
ObjectiveThe goal of this lecture is to give an overview over the whole path of drinking water from the source to the tap and understand the involved physical, chemical and biological processes which determine the drinking water quality.
ContentThe course covers qualitative (chemistry and microbiology) and quantitative aspects of drinking water from the resource to the tap. The various water resources, particularly groundwater and surface water, are discussed as part of the natural water cycle influenced by anthropogenic activities such as agriculture, industry, urban water systems. Furthermore legislation related to water resources and drinking water will be discussed. The lecture is focused on industrialized countries, but also addresses global water issues and problems in the developing world. Finally unit processes for drinking water treatment (filtration, adsorption, oxidation, disinfection etc.) will be presented and discussed.
Lecture notesHandouts will be distributed
LiteratureWill be mentioned in handouts
701-1313-00LIsotopic and Organic Tracers in Biogeochemistry Information W3 credits2GR. Kipfer, S. Ladd
AbstractThe course introduces the scientific concepts and typical applications of tracers in biogeochemistry. The course covers stable and radioactive isotopes, geochemical tracers and biomarkers and their application in biogeochemical processes as well as regional and global cycles. The course provides essential theoretical background for the lab course "Isotopic and Organic Tracers Laboratory".
ObjectiveThe course aims at understanding the fractionation of stable isotopes in biogeochemical processes. Students learn to know the origin and decay modes of relevant radiogenic isotopes. They discover the spectrum of possible geochemical tracers and biomarkers, their potential and limitations and get familiar with important applications
ContentGeogenic and cosmogenic radionuclides (sources, decay chains);
stable isotopes in biogeochemistry (nataural abundance, fractionation);
geochemical tracers for processes such as erosion, productivity, redox fronts; biomarkers for specific microbial processes.
Lecture noteshandouts will be provided for every chapter
LiteratureA list of relevant books and papers will be provided
Prerequisites / NoticeStudents should have a basic knowledge of biogeochemical processes (BSc course on Biogeochemical processes in aquatic systems or equivalent)
701-1315-00LBiogeochemistry of Trace ElementsW3 credits2GA. Voegelin, M. Etique, L. Winkel
AbstractThe course addresses the biogeochemical classification and behavior of trace elements, including key processes driving the cycling of important trace elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments and the coupling of abiotic and biotic transformation processes of trace elements. Examples of the role of trace elements in natural or engineered systems will be presented and discussed in the course.
ObjectiveThe students are familiar with the chemical characteristics, the environmental behavior and fate, and the biogeochemical reactivity of different groups of trace elements. They are able to apply their knowledge on the interaction of trace elements with geosphere components and on abiotic and biotic transformation processes of trace elements to discuss and evaluate the behavior and impact of trace elements in aquatic and terrestrial systems.
Content(i) Definition, importance and biogeochemical classification of trace elements. (ii) Key biogeochemical processes controlling the cycling of different trace elements (base metals, redox-sensitive and chalcophile elements, volatile trace elements) in natural and engineered environments. (iii) Abiotic and biotic processes that determine the environmental fate and impact of selected trace elements.
Lecture notesSelected handouts (lecture notes, literature, exercises) will be distributed during the course.
Prerequisites / NoticeStudents are expected to be familiar with the basic concepts of aquatic and soil chemistry covered in the respective classes at the bachelor level (soil mineralogy, soil organic matter, acid-base and redox reactions, complexation and sorption reactions, precipitation/dissolution reactions, thermodynamics, kinetics, carbonate buffer system).
This lecture is a prerequisite for attending the laboratory course "Trace elements laboratory".
701-1346-00LCarbon Mitigation Information W3 credits2GN. Gruber
AbstractFuture climate change can only kept within reasonable bounds when CO2 emissions are drastically reduced. In this course, we will discuss a portfolio of options involving the alteration of natural carbon sinks and carbon sequestration. The course includes introductory lectures, presentations from guest speakers from industry and the public sector, and final presentations by the students.
ObjectiveThe goal of this course is to investigate, as a group, a particular set of carbon mitigation/sequestration options and to evaluate their potential, their cost, and their consequences.
ContentFrom the large number of carbon sequestration/mitigation options, a few options will be selected and then investigated in detail by the students. The results of this research will then be presented to the other students, the involved faculty, and discussed in detail by the whole group.
Lecture notesNone
LiteratureWill be identified based on the chosen topic.
Prerequisites / NoticeExam: No final exam. Pass/No-Pass is assigned based on the quality of the presentation and ensuing discussion.
Ecology and Evolution
701-0263-01LSeminar in Evolutionary Ecology of Infectious DiseasesW3 credits2GD. Croll, S. Bonhoeffer, R. R. Regös
AbstractStudents of this course will discuss current topics from the field of infectious disease biology. From a list of publications, each student chooses some themes that he/she is going to explain and discuss with all other participants and under supervision. The actual topics will change from year to year corresponding to the progress and new results occuring in the field.
ObjectiveThis is an advanced course that will require significant student participation.  Students will learn how to evaluate and present scientific literature and trace the development of ideas related to understanding the ecology and evolutionary biology of infectious diseases.
ContentA core set of ~10 classic publications encompassing unifying themes in infectious disease ecology and evolution, such as virulence, resistance, metapopulations, networks, and competition will be presented and discussed.  Pathogens will include bacteria, viruses and fungi.  Hosts will include animals, plants and humans.
Lecture notesPublications and class notes can be downloaded from a web page announced during the lecture.
LiteraturePapers will be assigned and downloaded from a web page announced during the lecture.
701-1453-00LEcological Assessment and Evaluation Information W3 credits3GF. Knaus, U. Bollens Hunziker
AbstractThe course provides methods and tools for ecological evaluations dealing with nature conservation or landscape planning. It covers census methods, ecological criteria, indicators, indices and critically appraises objectivity and accuracy of the available methods, tools and procedures. Birds and plants are used as main example guiding through different case studies.
ObjectiveStudents will be able to:
1) critically consider biological data books and local, regional, and national inventories;
2) evaluate the validity of ecological criteria used in decision making processes;
3) critically appraise the handling of ecological data and criteria used in the process of evaluation
4) perform an ecological evaluation project from the field survey up to the descision making and planning.
Lecture notesPowerpoint slides are available on the webpage. Additional documents are handed out as copies.
LiteratureBasic literature and references are listed on the webpage.
Prerequisites / NoticeThe course structure changes between lecture parts, seminars and discussions. The didactic atmosphere is intended as working group.

Prerequisites for attending this course are skills and knowledge equivalent to those taught in the following ETH courses:
- Pflanzen- und Vegetationsökologie
- Systematische Botanik
- Raum- und Regionalentwicklung
- Naturschutz und Stadtbioökologie
701-1409-00LResearch Seminar: Ecological Genetics Information
Minimum number of participants is 4.
W2 credits1SA. Widmer, S. Fior
AbstractIn this research seminar we will critically discuss current topics in Ecological Genetics using publications from the leading scientific journals in this field.
ObjectiveIt is our aim that participants gain insight into the current research topics and knowledge available in Ecological Genetics and learn to critically assess and appreciate scientific publications in this field.
Lecture notesnone
Literaturewill be distributed
Prerequisites / NoticeActive participation in the discussions is a prerequisite for this course.
701-1425-01LGenetic Diversity: Techniques Restricted registration - show details
Number of participants limited to 8.
Selection of the students: order of registration

Registration until 17.10.2016.
W2 credits2PA. M. Minder Pfyl
AbstractThis course provides training for advanced students (master, doctoral or post-doctoral level) in how to measure and collect genetic diversity data from populations, experiments, field and laboratory. Different DNA/RNA extraction, genotyping and gene expression techniques will be addressed. Choice of topic by demand and/or availability of data.
ObjectiveTo learn and improve on standard and modern methods of genetic data collection. Examples are: use of pyrosequencing, expression analysis, SNP-typing, next-generation sequencing, etc.
A course for practicioners.
ContentAfter an introduction (one afternoon), students will have 3 weeks to work independently or in groups through different protocols. At the end the whole group meets for another afternoon to present the techniques/results and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques.
Techniques adressed are: RNA/DNA extractions and quality control, SNP genotyping, pyrosequencing, real-time qPCR.
Lecture notesMaterial will be handed out in the course.
LiteratureMaterial will be handed out in the course.
Prerequisites / NoticeTwo afternoons are hold in the class. The lab work will be done from the students according to their timetable, but has to be finished after 3 weeks. Effort is roughly 1-2 days per week, depending on the skills of the student.
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