Search result: Catalogue data in Autumn Semester 2016

Environmental Sciences Bachelor Information
Natural Science and Technical Electives
Natural Science Modules
227-0399-10LPhysiology and Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers I Information W3 credits2GH. Niemann
AbstractThis course offers an introduction into the structure and function of the human body, and how these are interlinked with one another. Focusing on physiology, the visualization of anatomy is supported by 3D-animation, Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance imaging.
ObjectiveTo understand basic principles and structure of the human body in consideration of the clinical relevance and the medical terminology used in medical work and research.
Content- The Human Body: nomenclature, orientations, tissues
- Musculoskeletal system, Muscle contraction
- Blood vessels, Heart, Circulation
- Blood, Immune system
- Respiratory system
- Acid-Base-Homeostasis
Lecture notesLecture notes and handouts
LiteratureSilbernagl S., Despopoulos A. Color Atlas of Physiology; Thieme 2008
Faller A., Schuenke M. The Human Body; Thieme 2004
Netter F. Atlas of human anatomy; Elsevier 2014
551-0317-00LImmunology I Information W3 credits2VA. Oxenius, M. Kopf
AbstractIntroduction into structural and functional aspects of the immune system.
Basic knowledge of the mechanisms and the regulation of an immune response.
ObjectiveIntroduction into structural and functional aspects of the immune system.
Basic knowledge of the mechanisms and the regulation of an immune response.
Content- Introduction and historical background
- Innate and adaptive immunity, Cells and organs of the immune system
- B cells and antibodies
- Generation of diversity
- Antigen presentation and Major Histoincompatibility (MHC) antigens
- Thymus and T cell selection
- Autoimmunity
- Cytotoxic T cells and NK cells
- Th1 and Th2 cells, regulatory T cells
- Allergies
- Hypersensitivities
- Vaccines, immune-therapeutic interventions
Lecture notesElectronic access to the documentation will be provided. The link can be found at "Lernmaterialien"
Literature- Kuby, Immunology, 7th edition, Freemen + Co., New York, 2009
Prerequisites / NoticeImmunology I (WS) and Immunology II (SS) will be examined as one learning entity in a "Sessionsprüfung".
752-6001-00LIntroduction to Nutritional Science Information W3 credits2VM. B. Zimmermann, C. Wolfrum
AbstractThis course introduces basic concepts of micro- and macronutrient nutrition. Micronutrients studied include fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins, minerals and trace elements. Macronutrients include proteins, fat and carbohydrates. Special attention is given to nutrient digestion, bioavailability, metabolism and excretion with some focus on energy metabolism.
ObjectiveTo introduce the students to the both macro- and micronutrients in relation to food and metabolism.
ContentThe course is devided into two parts. The lectutres on micronutrients are given by Prof. Zimmermann and the lectures on macronutrients are given by Prof. Wolfrum. Prof. Zimmermann discusses the micronutrients, including fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins, minerals and trace elements. Prof. Wolfrum introduces basic nutritional aspects of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and energy metabolism. The nutrients are described in relation to digestion, absorption and metabolism. Special aspects of homeostasis and homeorhesis are emphasized.
Lecture notesThere is no script. Powerpoint presentations will be made available.
LiteratureElmadfa I & Leitzmann C: Ernährung des Menschen
UTB Ulmer, Stuttgart, 4. überarb. Ausgabe 2004
ISBN-10: 3825280365; ISBN-13: 978-3825280369

Garrow JS and James WPT: Human Nutrition and Dietetics
Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 11th rev. ed. 2005
ISBN-10: 0443056277; ISBN-13: 978-0443056277
Soil Sciences
701-0533-00LSoil ChemistryW3 credits2GR. Kretzschmar, D. I. Christl
AbstractThis course discusses chemical and biogeochemical processes in soils and their influence on the behavior and cycling of nutrients and pollutants in terrestrial systems. Approaches for quantitative modeling of the processes are introduced.
ObjectiveUnderstanding of important chemical soil properties and processes and their influence on the behavior (e.g., speciation, bioavailability, mobility) of nutrients and pollutants.
ContentImportant topics include the structure and properties of clays and oxides, the chemistry of the soil solution, gas equilibria, dissolution and precipitation of mineral phases, cation exchange, surface complexation, chemistry of soil organic matter, redox reactions in flooded soils, soil acidification and soil salinization.
Lecture notesHandouts in lectures.
Literature- Selected chapters in: Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005.
- Chapters 2 and 5 in Scheffer/Schachtschabel - Soil Science, 1st English edition, Springer, 2016.
701-0535-00LEnvironmental Soil Physics/Vadose Zone Hydrology Information W3 credits2G + 2UD. Or
AbstractThe course provides theoretical and practical foundations for understanding and characterizing physical and transport properties of soils/ near-surface earth materials, and quantifying hydrological processes and fluxes of mass and energy at multiple scales. Emphasis is given to land-atmosphere interactions, the role of plants on hydrological cycles, and biophysical processes in soils.
ObjectiveStudents are able to
- characterize quantitative knowledge needed to measure and parameterize structural, flow and transport properties of partially-saturated porous media.
- quantify driving forces and resulting fluxes of water, solute, and heat in soils.
- apply modern measurement methods and analytical tools for hydrological data collection
- conduct and interpret a limited number of experimental studies
- explain links between physical processes in the vadose-zone and major societal and environmental challenges
ContentWeeks 1 to 3: Physical Properties of Soils and Other Porous Media – Units and dimensions, definitions and basic mass-volume relationships between the solid, liquid and gaseous phases; soil texture; particle size distributions; surface area; soil structure. Soil colloids and clay behavior

Soil Water Content and its Measurement - Definitions; measurement methods - gravimetric, neutron scattering, gamma attenuation; and time domain reflectometry; soil water storage and water balance.

Weeks 4 to 5: Soil Water Retention and Potential (Hydrostatics) - The energy state of soil water; total water potential and its components; properties of water (molecular, surface tension, and capillary rise); modern aspects of capillarity in porous media; units and calculations and measurement of equilibrium soil water potential components; soil water characteristic curves definitions and measurements; parametric models; hysteresis. Modern aspects of capillarity

Demo-Lab: Laboratory methods for determination of soil water characteristic curve (SWC), sensor pairing

Weeks 6 to 9: Water Flow in Soil - Hydrodynamics:
Part 1 - Laminar flow in tubes (Poiseuille's Law); Darcy's Law, conditions and states of flow; saturated flow; hydraulic conductivity and its measurement.

Lab #1: Measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity in uniform and layered soil columns using the constant head method.

Part 2 - Unsaturated steady state flow; unsaturated hydraulic conductivity models and applications; non-steady flow and Richard’s Eq.; approximate solutions to infiltration (Green-Ampt, Philip); field methods for estimating soil hydraulic properties.
Midterm exam

Lab #2: Measurement of vertical infiltration into dry soil column - Green-Ampt, and Philip's approximations; infiltration rates and wetting front propagation.

Part 3 - Use of Hydrus model for simulation of unsaturated flow

Week 10 to 11: Energy Balance and Land Atmosphere Interactions - Radiation and energy balance; evapotranspiration definitions and estimation; transpiration, plant development and transpirtation coefficients – small and large scale influences on hydrological cycle; surface evaporation.

Week 12 to 13: Solute Transport in Soils – Transport mechanisms of solutes in porous media; breakthrough curves; convection-dispersion eq.; solutions for pulse and step solute application; parameter estimation; salt balance.

Lab #3: Miscible displacement and breakthrough curves for a conservative tracer through a column; data analysis and transport parameter estimation.

Additional topics:

Temperature and Heat Flow in Porous Media - Soil thermal properties; steady state heat flow; nonsteady heat flow; estimation of thermal properties; engineering applications.

Biological Processes in the Vaodse Zone – An overview of below-ground biological activity (plant roots, microbial, etc.); interplay between physical and biological processes. Focus on soil-atmosphere gaseous exchange; and challenges for bio- and phytoremediation.
Lecture notesClassnotes on website: Vadose Zone Hydrology, by Or D., J.M. Wraith, and M. Tuller
(available at the beginning of the semester)
LiteratureSupplemental textbook (not mandatory) -Environmental Soil Physics, by: D. Hillel
651-3525-00LIntroduction to Engineering GeologyW3 credits3GS. Löw
AbstractThis introductory course starts from a descriptions of the behavior and phenomena of soils and rocks under near surface loading conditions and their key geotechnical properties. Lab and field methods for the characterization of soils, rocks and rock masses are introduced. Finally practical aspects of ground engineering, including tunneling and landslide hazards are presented.
ObjectiveUnderstanding the basic geotechnical and geomechanical properties and processes of rocks and soils. Understanding the interaction of rock and soil masses with technical systems. Understanding the fundamentals of geological hazards.
ContentRock, soil and rock mass: scale effects and fundamental geotechnical properties. Soil mechanical properties and their determination. Rock mechanical properties and their determination. Fractures: geotechnical properties and their determination. Geotechnical classification of intact rock, soils and rock masses. Natural and induced stresses in rock and soil. Interaction of soil masses with surface loads, water and excavations. Slope instability mechanisms and stability analyses. Underground excavation instability mechanisms and rock deformation. Geological mass wasting processes.
Lecture notesWritten course documentation available under "Kursunterlagen".
LiteraturePRINZ, H. & R. Strauss (2006): Abriss der Ingenieurgeologie. - 671 S., 4. Aufl., Elsevier GmbH (Spektrum Verlag).

CADUTO, D.C. (1999): Geotechnical Engineering, Principles and Practices. 759 S., 1. Aufl., (Prentice Hall)

LANG, H.-J., HUDER, J. & AMMAN, P. (1996): Bodenmechanik und Grundbau. Das Verhalten von Böden und die wichtigsten grundbaulichen Konzepte. - 320 S., 5.Aufl., Berlin, Heidelberg etc. (Springer).

HOEK, E. (2007): Practical Rock Engineering - Course Notes.

HUDSON, J.A. & HARRISON, J.P. (1997): Engineering Rock Mechanics. An Introduction to the Principles. - 444 S. (Pergamon).
Methodes of Statistical Data Analysis
701-0105-00LApplied Statistics for Environmental SciencesW3 credits2GC. Bigler, U. Brändle, M. Kalisch, L. Meier
AbstractStatistical methods from current publications in environmental sciences are presented and applied. Students are enabled to understand the methods, clean datasets, analyse them using the software package R and present the results in a suitable form. They will be able to describe strengths and weaknesses of the methods for given fields of application.
ObjectiveStudents are able to
- use suitable statistical methods for data analysis in their subject area.
- characterize data sets using explorative methods
- check the suitability of data sets to answer a given question, prepare data sets for import to a statistics program and conduct the analysis.
- interpret statistical analyses and process them graphically for use in presentations and publications.
- describe the basics of statistical methods used in current publications.
- use the software package R for statistical analysis
ContentStatistische Methoden: Regression (lineare Modelle; generalisierte lineare Modelle; GLMs); Varianzanalyse; gemischte Modelle für gruppierte Daten (mixed-effects models); Fragebogenstatistik; Tests (t Test; Chiquadrat Test; Fisher Test); Power-Analyse

Werkzeuge: Explorative Datenanalyse für Hypothesenbildung; Auswahlverfahren für geeignete statistische Verfahren; Datenaufbereitung (Excel -> R; Datenbereinigung); graphische Darstellung von Resultaten; statistische Verfahren in Publikationen erkennen
Wir arbeiten mit dem Softwarepaket R.

Form: Im Wochenrhythmus finden alternierend Einführungen in eine neue Methode und Übungsstunden zum Thema statt.
Prerequisites / NoticeBesuch von "Mathematik IV: Statistik" oder vergleichbare Lehrveranstaltung
701-1671-00LSampling Techniques for Forest InventoriesW3 credits2VD. Mandallaz
AbstractIntroduction to design and model assisted sampling theory for finite populations as well as to the infinite population model for forest inventory. Two-phase two-stage forest inventories with simple or cluster sampling. Small area estimation. Presentation of the Swiss National Inventory.
Short introduction to Kriging techniques.
ObjectiveStudents should have a good understanding of the concepts of general sampling theory in a modern framework. They should also master the specific problems arising in forest inventory and be able, if necessary, to read more specialized books or research papers.
ContentInclusion probabilities. Horwitz-Thompson estimates. Simple random sampling. Stratified sampling. PPS sampling and multi-stage sampling. Model assisted procedures. Formalism of sampling theory in forest inventory. One-phase simple and cluster sampling schemes. Two-phase two-sampling schemes. Model-dependent and model assisted procedures. Small area estimation. Kriging techniques. The Swiss National Forest Inventory.
Lecture notesSampling techniques for forest inventories. Daniel Mandallaz, Chapman and Hall. A free electronic copy of the book is also available. A PDF file containing parts of the book will be mailed to the participants
LiteratureSampling methods for multiresource forest inventory. H.T. Schreuder, T.G. Gregoire, G.B. Wood, 1993, Wiley.
Model assisted survey sampling, C.E. Särndal, B. Swenson, J. Wretman, 2003, Springer.
Sampling methods, remote sensing and GIS multisource forest inventory
M. Köhl, S. Magnussen, M. Marchetti, 2006, Springer.
Sampling techniques for forest inventories, Daniel Mandallaz, 2007, Chapman and Hall.
T.G. Gregoire, H.T. Valentine. Sampling strategies for natural resources and the environment, Chapman and Hall.
Prerequisites / NoticeA simulation software will be used throughtout the lectures to illustrate the theoretical developments. Upon request a half day field demonstration can be organized at the WSL outside the lecture time. A repetitorium for the exam is also offered.
401-0625-01LApplied Analysis of Variance and Experimental Design Information W5 credits2V + 1UL. Meier
AbstractPrinciples of experimental design. One-way analysis of variance. Multi-factor experiments and analysis of variance. Block designs. Latin square designs. Split-plot and strip-plot designs. Random effects and mixed effects models. Full factorials and fractional designs.
ObjectiveParticipants will be able to plan and analyze efficient experiments in the fields of natural sciences. They will gain practical experience by using the software R.
ContentPrinciples of experimental design. One-way analysis of variance. Multi-factor experiments and analysis of variance. Block designs. Latin square designs. Split-plot and strip-plot designs. Random effects and mixed effects models. Full factorials and fractional designs.
LiteratureG. Oehlert: A First Course in Design and Analysis of Experiments, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 2000.
Prerequisites / NoticeThe exercises, but also the classes will be based on procedures from the freely available, open-source statistical software R, for which an introduction will be held.
401-0649-00LApplied Statistical Regression Information W5 credits2V + 1UM. Dettling
AbstractThis course offers a practically oriented introduction into regression modeling methods. The basic concepts and some mathematical background are included, with the emphasis lying in learning "good practice" that can be applied in every student's own projects and daily work life. A special focus will be laid in the use of the statistical software package R for regression analysis.
ObjectiveThe students acquire advanced practical skills in linear regression analysis and are also familiar with its extensions to generalized linear modeling.
ContentThe course starts with the basics of linear modeling, and then proceeds to parameter estimation, tests, confidence intervals, residual analysis, model choice, and prediction. More rarely touched but practically relevant topics that will be covered include variable transformations, multicollinearity problems and model interpretation, as well as general modeling strategies.

The last third of the course is dedicated to an introduction to generalized linear models: this includes the generalized additive model, logistic regression for binary response variables, binomial regression for grouped data and poisson regression for count data.
Lecture notesA script will be available.
LiteratureFaraway (2005): Linear Models with R
Faraway (2006): Extending the Linear Model with R
Draper & Smith (1998): Applied Regression Analysis
Fox (2008): Applied Regression Analysis and GLMs
Montgomery et al. (2006): Introduction to Linear Regression Analysis
Prerequisites / NoticeThe exercises, but also the classes will be based on procedures from the freely available, open-source statistical software package R, for which an introduction will be held.

In the Mathematics Bachelor and Master programmes, the two course units 401-0649-00L "Applied Statistical Regression" and 401-3622-00L "Regression" are mutually exclusive. Registration for the examination of one of these two course units is only allowed if you have not registered for the examination of the other course unit.
401-6215-00LUsing R for Data Analysis and Graphics (Part I) Information W1 credit1GA. Drewek, A. J. Papritz
AbstractThe course provides the first part an introduction to the statistical software R for scientists. Topics covered are data generation and selection, graphical and basic statistical functions, creating simple functions, basic types of objects.
ObjectiveThe students will be able to use the software R for simple data analysis.
ContentThe course provides the first part of an introduction to the statistical software R for scientists. R is free software that contains a huge collection of functions with focus on statistics and graphics. If one wants to use R one has to learn the programming language R - on very rudimentary level. The course aims to facilitate this by providing a basic introduction to R.

Part I of the course covers the following topics:
- What is R?
- R Basics: reading and writing data from/to files, creating vectors & matrices, selecting elements of dataframes, vectors and matrices, arithmetics;
- Types of data: numeric, character, logical and categorical data, missing values;
- Simple (statistical) functions: summary, mean, var, etc., simple statistical tests;
- Writing simple functions;
- Introduction to graphics: scatter-, boxplots and other high-level plotting functions, embellishing plots by title, axis labels, etc., adding elements (lines, points) to existing plots.

The course focuses on practical work at the computer. We will make use of the graphical user interface RStudio:

Note: Part I of UsingR is complemented and extended by Part II, which is offered during the second part of the semester and which can be taken independently from Part I.
Lecture notesAn Introduction to R.
Prerequisites / NoticeThe course resources will be provided via the Moodle web learning platform
Please login (with your ETH (or other University) username+password) at
Choose the course "Using R for Data Analysis and Graphics" and follow the instructions for registration.
401-6217-00LUsing R for Data Analysis and Graphics (Part II) Information W1 credit1GA. Drewek, A. J. Papritz
AbstractThe course provides the second part an introduction to the statistical software R for scientists. Topics are data generation and selection, graphical functions, important statistical functions, types of objects, models, programming and writing functions.
Note: This part builds on "Using R... (Part I)", but can be taken independently if the basics of R are already known.
ObjectiveThe students will be able to use the software R efficiently for data analysis.
ContentThe course provides the second part of an introduction to the statistical software R for scientists. R is free software that contains a huge collection of functions with focus on statistics and graphics. If one wants to use R one has to learn the programming language R - on very rudimentary level. The course aims to facilitate this by providing a basic introduction to R.

Part II of the course builds on part I and covers the following additional topics:
- Elements of the R language: control structures (if, else, loops), lists, overview of R objects, attributes of R objects;
- More on R functions;
- Applying functions to elements of vectors, matrices and lists;
- Object oriented programming with R: classes and methods;
- Tayloring R: options
- Extending basic R: packages

The course focuses on practical work at the computer. We will make use of the graphical user interface RStudio:
Lecture notesAn Introduction to R.
Prerequisites / NoticeBasic knowledge of R equivalent to "Using R .. (part 1)" ( = 401-6215-00L ) is a prerequisite for this course.

The course resources will be provided via the Moodle web learning platform
Please login (with your ETH (or other University) username+password) at
Choose the course "Using R for Data Analysis and Graphics" and follow the instructions for registration.
Ecology and Conservation Biology
701-0305-00LVertebrate EcologyW2 credits2GW. Suter, J. Senn
AbstractThe course offers an overview on the ecology and conservation biology of birds and mammals. Important concepts from physiology, behavioural ecology, population biology, biogeography and community ecology will be linked to applications in conservation and management. A worldwide perspective will be complemented by a focus on the Central European fauna and its dynamics.
ObjectiveThe students are familiar with important topics in animal ecology, with an emphasis on birds and mammals. They are able to link theoretical concepts with visible ecological phenomena, and view them against an evolutionary backdrop. They can thus appraise applied aspects of the conservation and the use of animal populations, such as the influence of larger predators on prey populations or of herbivores on vegetation, the effects of hunting, landscape change, or of other human influences on animal populations. They understand the biogeographical characteristics of the Central European vertebrate fauna and its temporal and spatial dynamics.
ContentThe course deals with a number of main topics that include feeding and resource use, spatial behaviour and migrations, reproduction, population dynamics, competition and predation, biodiversity and distributions, and dynamics of the Central European fauna. There is an emphasis on linking theory with management issues in conservation and management of wildlife populations. During the first half of the course, examples will be drawn worldwide whereas during the second half, the course will focus more strongly on the European fauna, particularly of the Alpine region. Although the course is not designed to teach natural history of the native species, examples will cover much of the taxonomic breadth of the European fauna. Students are expected to read one paper and to present it to the audience. In addition, two optional field trips will be offered on weekends during the semester (2 days in the Swiss National Park: probably 10-11 October, one day in an important wetland for waterbirds: a Saturday in Nov./Dec., by arrangement).
For the detailed program, see the German text.
Lecture notesLecture notes will be available.
LiteratureLiterature will be listed in the lecture notes, and papers to be presented will be distributed if needed. Some books relevant to the course are (optional reading):

- Fryxell, J.M., Sinclair, A.R.E., & Caughley, G. 2014. Wildlife Ecology, Conservation, and Management. 3rd ed. Wiley Blackwell, Chichester, UK.
- Boitani, L. & Fuller, T. editors. 2000. Research Techniques in Animal Ecology: Controversies and Consequences. Columbia University Press.
Prerequisites / Notice- Everybody will be expected to present a scientific paper in class, to be chosen from a list given.
701-0405-00LFresh Water: Concepts and Methods for Sustainable Management Information W3 credits2GC. Scheidegger, C. Weber, V. Weitbrecht
AbstractIn this course the important freshwater ecosystems, on a global perspective, will be presented. The foci of the lectures are basic ecological properties of those aquatic systems, their anthropogenic influences and subsequent modifications. The learning is organized along case studies, for which conflicting interests, as well as concepts and methods for sustainable management will be discussed.
Objective• basics concerning the functioning of the most important freshwater ecosystems
• basics of the sustainable management of aquatic ecosystems
• application of these principles with case studies
• critical analyses, organization of discussion groups
Content1) Einführung, Gewässerschutzgesetz
2) Biodiversität
3) Sedimenthaushalt
4) Moore - Verbreitung, Schutz und Regeneration
5) Flussrevitalisierung
6) Flussaufweitungen und Blockrampen
7) Auenschutz und Revitalisierung
8) Schutz von Fliessgewässern
9) Pumpspeicherwerke
10) Sedimentdynamik
11) Fischwanderung und Kraftwerke
12) Wasser und Gesundheit, Auswirkungen des Klimawandels
13) Schlussdiskussion
Lecture notesthemenspezifische Unterlagen werden verteilt und auf
zugänglich gemacht.
LiteratureLiteraturlisten zu den Fallbeispielen werden abgegeben und auf
zugänglich gemacht.
Prerequisites / NoticeBasic ecology lectures of the first four semesters. Students will organize discussion groups.
701-1663-00LExploring Resilience of Tropical Forest Landscapes
This course will run in complement to 701-1661-00 Conservation and Development in Complex Landscapes.
W4 credits9GC. Kettle, C. D. Philipson
AbstractA highly interactive learning experience with real world exposure to the challenges associated with conservation and management of tropical forest systems. Designed as a complementary course to Rain Forest Ecology 701-0324-00L. Students will gain first-hand experience of tropical forest landscapes and the challenges associated with conducting ecological research in this fascinating environment.
ObjectiveThe course will have four core learning objectives: 1) provide students with an understanding and experience of a range of tropical rainforest systems, and an appreciation of the challenges of managing these landscapes to provide multiple ecosystem services. 2) To develop their creative and critical scientific thinking and experimental design in the context of tropical field ecology. Specifically through design and implementation an Adaptive Management approach to tropical forest landscapes. 3) Students will develop their understanding of multiple stakeholders perspectives in the context of landscape management in SE Asian develop the knowledge to discuss this issues with experts in the field. Students will present their Adaptive Management Plans to senior Forest Researchers in the forest department at the FRC Sabah and engage in dialogue regarding diverse perspectives in forest and landscape management. 4) To develop their team building skills to work in culturally diverse groups and under sometimes challenging conditions to work toward a common research goal.
ContentProposed topics to be covered within the scope of the projects and based upon the expertise of the course lecturers: Tropical Ecology, Forest Ecology and Forest Botany. Tropical Forest management and restoration. Conservation biology, Animal behaviour, tropical entomology. Biodiversity and ecosystem function. Resilience and Adaptive Management.
LiteratureLiterature presented in Tropical Rainforest Ecology
Prerequisites / Notice701-0324-00 G Rain Forest Ecology
Environmental Chemistry/Ecotocxicology
701-0201-00LIntroduction to Environmental Organic ChemistryW5 credits4GM. Sander, K. McNeill
AbstractThis course presents significant organic environmental pollutants and the physical-chemical bases required to understand their environmental behavior, and deepens this knowledge through exercises. The most important analytical methods for the qualitative and quantitative determination of organic pollutants in environmental samples are discussed.
ObjectiveThe students are able to
- name and recognise the most important classes of environmentally-relevant anthropogenic chemicals.
- explain, on the basis of physical-chemical foundations, the most important processes which determine the environmental behavior of organic pollutants.
- name fundamental methods of trace analysis of organic pollutants in environmental sampling.
- propose experimental methods for determining substance-specific properties.
- identify, on the basis of chemical structure, the processes relevant for the environmental behavior of a compound.
- critically evaluate published work and data.
Content- Overview of the most important classes of environmental organic pollutants
- Molecular interactions that determine the partitioning behavior (adsorption and absorption processes) of organic compounds between different environmental compartments (gas,liquid,solid)
- Physical-chemical properties (vapor pressure, aqueous solubility, air-water partition constant, organic solvent-water partition constants, etc) and partitioning behavior of organic compounds between environmentally relevant phases (air, aerosols, soil, water, biota)
- Basics of trace analytical methods to determine organic componds (enrichment techniques, separation (chromatography), detection)
- Chemical transformation reactions of organic pollutants in aquatic and in terrestrial systems (reactions with nucleophiles incl. hydrolysis, elimination, addition)
Lecture notesScript will be distributed
LiteratureSchwarzenbach, R.P., P.M. Gschwend, and D.M. Imboden.
Environmental Organic Chemistry. 2nd Ed. Wiley, New York, 1313 p.(2003)

Goss, K.U. and Schwarzenbach, R.P. (2003). "Rules of thumb for assessing equilibrium partitioning of organic compounds-success and pitfalls", Journal of Chemical Education, 80, 4, 450-455.
Prerequisites / NoticeDie Lehrveranstaltung richtet sich nicht nur an jene Studierenden, welche sich später chemisch vertiefen wollen, sondern ausdrücklich auch an alle jene, welche sich mit der Problematik von organischen Schadstoffen in der Umwelt vertraut machen wollen, um dieses Wissen in anderen Vertiefungen anzuwenden
701-0225-00LOrganic ChemistryW2 credits2VK. McNeill
AbstractIntroduction to Isomerism.
Reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry (substitutions, additions, eliminations condensations)
Biosynthesis of Terpenes.
ObjectiveThe students are able to differentiate between structural and stereoisomers.
The students know the basic reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry. They are able to understand and formulate simple biochemical rections.
They know the basics of the biosynthesis of terpenes.
ContentIsomerism (structural isomers, stereoisomers).
Descriptive chemistry of natural products (glycerides, peptides, saccharides).
Reaction mechanisms (substitutions, additions, eliminations, condensations).
The citric acid cycle, the gloxylate cycle.
Biosynthesis of terpenes.
LiteratureCarsten Schmuck, Basisbuch Organische Chemie, Pearson
Prerequisites / NoticeDer Stoff der Basischemie wird vorausgesetzt.
701-0297-00LApplied EcotoxicologyW2 credits2VK. Fent
AbstractBesides regarding basic concepts, this lecture focus on applied aspects of ecotoxicology. Case studies and effects of environmental chemicals on cells, organisms up to ecosystems are regarded. In a multidisciplinary approach based on toxicological concepts, pollutants are analysed, in particular hormonally active compounds and their effects on reproduction.
ObjectiveThis lecture focusses on basic concepts of ecotoxicology and their application to enviromental chemicals and environmental pollution problems. Basic concepts are regarded with respect to their consequences for the environment. Toxicological effects on organisms are analysed at different levels of organisation, from the molecular to the ecosystem level. Case studies are regarded in order to understand chemical's actions and their effects. In addition bioaccumulation and their consequences, the methods in ecotoxicology and environmental effects of various compounds will be regarded. Emphasis will be placed on hormonally active compounds and their effects to aquatic organisms. Furthermore, methods of enviornmental risk assessment of environmental pollutants will be discussed.
ContentBasic concepts of ecotoxicology. Bioavailability, uptake and metabolism. Bioacculation of environmental chemicals. Methods of ectotoxicology. Effects on moleculse, cells, organisms, populations and ecosystems. Mode of actions of environmental chemicals. Effect assessment in model ecosystems. Environmental hazard and risk assessment. Case studies on environmental pollutants. Endocrine disrupters and their ecological consequences.
Lecture notesHochschullehrbuch von K. Fent "Ökotoxikologie. Umweltchemie-Toxikologie-Ökologie" (Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, 2013, 4. Auflage).
LiteratureFent K. Ökotoxikologie. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, 2013. (4. Auflage)
529-0051-00LAnalytical Chemistry IW3 credits3GD. Günther, M.‑O. Ebert, R. Zenobi
AbstractIntroduction into the most important spectroscopical methods and their applications to gain structural information.
ObjectiveKnowledge about the necessary theoretical background of spectroscopical methods and their practical applications
ContentApplication oriented basics of organic and inorganic instrumental analysis and of the empirical employment of structure elucidation methods:
Mass spectrometry: Ionization methods, mass separation, isotope signals, rules of fragmentation, rearrangements.
NMR spectroscopy: Experimental basics, chemical shift, spin-spin coupling.
IR spectroscopy: Revisiting topics like harmonic oscillator, normal vibrations, coupled oscillating systems (in accordance to the basics of the related lecture in physical chemistry); sample preparation, acquisition techniques, law of Lambert and Beer, interpretation of IR spectra; Raman spectroscopy.
UV/VIS spectroscopy: Basics, interpretation of electron spectra. Circular dichroism (CD) und optical rotation dispersion (ORD).
Atomic absorption, emission, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy: Basics, sample preparation.
Lecture notesScript will be for the production price
Literature- R. Kellner, J.-M. Mermet, M. Otto, H. M. Widmer (Eds.) Analytical Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 1998;
- D. A. Skoog und J. J. Leary, Instrumentelle Analytik, Springer, Heidelberg, 1996;
- M. Hesse, H. Meier, B. Zeeh, Spektroskopische Methoden in der organischen Chemie, 5. überarbeitete Auflage, Thieme, Stuttgart, 1995
- E. Pretsch, P. Bühlmann, C. Affolter, M. Badertscher, Spektroskopische Daten zur Strukturaufklärung organischer verbindungen, 4. Auflage, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2001-
Kläntschi N., Lienemann P., Richner P., Vonmont H: Elementanalytik. Instrumenteller Nachweis und Bestimmung von Elementen und deren Verbindungen. Spektrum Analytik, 1996, Hardcover, 339 S., ISBN 3-86025-134-1.
Prerequisites / NoticeExcercises are integrated in the lectures. In addition, attendance in the lecture 529-0289-00 "Instrumental analysis of organic compounts" (4th semester) is recommended.
Environmental Physics
701-0479-00LEnvironmental Fluid Dynamics Information W3 credits2GH. Wernli, M. Croci-Maspoli
AbstractThis course covers the basic physical concepts and mathematical equations used to describe environmental fluid systems on the rotating Earth. Fundamental concepts (e.g. vorticity dynamics and waves) are formally introduced, applied quantitatively and illustrated using examples. Exercises help to deepen knowledge of the material.
ObjectiveStudents are able
- to name the bases, concepts and methods of environmental fluid dynamics.
- to understand and discuss the components of the basic physical equations in fluid dynamics
- to apply basic mathematical equations to simple problems of environmental fluid dynamics
ContentBasic physial terminology and mathematical laws:
Continuum hypothesis, forces, constitutive laws, state equations and basic principles of thermodynamics, kinematics, laws of mass and momentum on rotating earth.
Concepts and illustrative flow sytems: vorticity dynamics, boundary layers, instability, turbulence - with respect to environmental fluid systems.
Scale analysis: dimensionles variables and dynamical similarity, simplification of the fluid system, e.g. shallow water assumption, geostrophic flow.
Waves in environmental fluid systems.
Lecture notesIn english language
LiteratureWill be presnted in class.
See also: web-site.
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