The spring semester 2021 will certainly take place online until Easter. Exceptions: Courses that can only be carried out with on-site presence. Please note the information provided by the lecturers.

Search result: Catalogue data in Autumn Semester 2016

MAS in Medical Physics Information
Specialization: General Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering
Major in Radiation Therapy
227-0965-00LMicro and Nano-Tomography of Biological TissuesW4 credits3GM. Stampanoni, P. A. Kaestner
AbstractThe lecture introduces the physical and technical know-how of X-ray tomographic microscopy. Several X-ray imaging techniques (absorption-, phase- and darkfield contrast) will be discussed and their use in daily research, in particular biology, is presented. The course discusses the aspects of quantitative evaluation of tomographic data sets like segmentation, morphometry and statistics.
ObjectiveIntroduction to the basic concepts of X-ray tomographic imaging, image analysis and data quantification at the micro and nano scale with particular emphasis on biological applications
ContentSynchrotron-based X-ray micro- and nano-tomography is today a powerful technique for non-destructive, high-resolution investigations of a broad range of materials. The high-brilliance and high-coherence of third generation synchrotron radiation facilities allow quantitative, three-dimensional imaging at the micro and nanometer scale and extend the traditional absorption imaging technique to edge-enhanced and phase-sensitive measurements, which are particularly suited for investigating biological samples.

The lecture includes a general introduction to the principles of tomographic imaging from image formation to image reconstruction. It provides the physical and engineering basics to understand how imaging beamlines at synchrotron facilities work, looks into the recently developed phase contrast methods, and explores the first applications of X-ray nano-tomographic experiments.

The course finally provides the necessary background to understand the quantitative evaluation of tomographic data, from basic image analysis to complex morphometrical computations and 3D visualization, keeping the focus on biomedical applications.
Lecture notesAvailable online
LiteratureWill be indicated during the lecture.
402-0674-00LPhysics in Medical Research: From Atoms to Cells Information W6 credits2V + 1UB. K. R. Müller
AbstractScanning probe and diffraction techniques allow studying activated atomic processes during early stages of epitaxial growth. For quantitative description, rate equation analysis, mean-field nucleation and scaling theories are applied on systems ranging from simple metallic to complex organic materials. The knowledge is expanded to optical and electronic properties as well as to proteins and cells.
ObjectiveThe lecture series is motivated by an overview covering the skin of the crystals, roughness analysis, contact angle measurements, protein absorption/activity and monocyte behaviour.

As the first step, real structures on clean surfaces including surface reconstructions and surface relaxations, defects in crystals are presented, before the preparation of clean metallic, semiconducting, oxidic and organic surfaces are introduced.

The atomic processes on surfaces are activated by the increase of the substrate temperature. They can be studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The combination with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) allows determining the sizes of the critical nuclei and the other activated processes in a hierarchical fashion. The evolution of the surface morphology is characterized by the density and size distribution of the nanostructures that could be quantified by means of the rate equation analysis, the mean-field nucleation theory, as well as the scaling theory. The surface morphology is further characterized by defects and nanostructure's shapes, which are based on the strain relieving mechanisms and kinetic growth processes.

High-resolution electron diffraction is complementary to scanning probe techniques and provides exact mean values. Some phenomena are quantitatively described by the kinematic theory and perfectly understood by means of the Ewald construction. Other phenomena need to be described by the more complex dynamical theory. Electron diffraction is not only associated with elastic scattering but also inelastic excitation mechanisms that reflect the electronic structure of the surfaces studied. Low-energy electrons lead to phonon and high-energy electrons to plasmon excitations. Both effects are perfectly described by dipole and impact scattering.

Thin-films of rather complex organic materials are often quantitatively characterized by photons with a broad range of wavelengths from ultra-violet to infra-red light. Asymmetries and preferential orientations of the (anisotropic) molecules are verified using the optical dichroism and second harmonic generation measurements. These characterization techniques are vital for optimizing the preparation of medical implants and the determination of tissue's anisotropies within the human body.

Cell-surface interactions are related to the cell adhesion and the contractile cellular forces. Physical means have been developed to quantify these interactions. Other physical techniques are introduced in cell biology, namely to count and sort cells, to study cell proliferation and metabolism and to determine the relation between cell morphology and function.

3D scaffolds are important for tissue augmentation and engineering. Design, preparation methods, and characterization of these highly porous 3D microstructures are also presented.

Visiting clinical research in a leading university hospital will show the usefulness of the lecture series.
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