Search result: Catalogue data in Spring Semester 2021

Physics Master Information
Electives
Electives: Physics and Mathematics
Selection: Solid State Physics
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
402-0516-10LGroup Theory and its ApplicationsW12 credits3V + 3UD. Pescia
AbstractThis lecture introduces the use of group theory to solve problems of quantum mechanics, condensed matter physics and particle physics. Symmetry is at the roots of quantum mechanics: this lecture is also a tutorial for students that would like to understand the practical side of the (often difficult) mathematical exposition of regular courses on quantum mechanics.
ObjectiveThe aim of this lecture is to give a practical knowledge on the application of symmetry in atomic-, molecular-, condensed matter- and particle physics. The lecture is intended for students at the master and Phd. level in Physics that would like to have a practical and comprehensive view of the role of symmetry in physics. Students in their third year of Bachelor will be perfectly able to follow the lecture and can use it for their future master curriculuum. Students from other Departements are welcome, as the lecture is designed to be (almost) self-contained. As symmetry is omnipresent in science and in particular quantum mechanics, this lecture is also a tutorial on quantum mechanics for students that would like to understand what is behind the often difficult mathematical exposition of regular courses on quantum mechanics.
Content1. Abstract Group Theory and representation theory of groups
(Fundamentals of groups, Groups and geometry, Point and space groups, Representation theory of groups (H. Weyl, 1885-1955), Reducible and irreducible representations , Properties of irreducible representations, Characters of a representation and theorems involving them, Symmetry adapted vectors)

2. Group theory and eigenvalue problems (General introduction and practical examples)

3. Representations of continuous groups (the circle group, The full rotation group, atomic physics, the translation group and the Schrödinger representation of quantum mechanics, Cristal field splitting, The Peter-Weyl theorem, The Stone-von Neumann theorem, The Harisch-Chandra character)

4. Space groups and their representations (Elements of crystallography, irreducible representations of the space groups, non-symmorphic space groups)

5. Topological properties of groups and half integer spins: tensor products, applications of tensor products, an introduction to the universal covering group, the universal covering group of SO3, SU(2), how to deal with the spin of the electron, Clebsch-Gordan coefficients, double point groups, the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for point groups, the Wigner-Eckart-Koster theorem and its applications

6 The application of symmetry to phase transitions (Landau).

7. Young tableaus: many electron and particle physics (SU_3).
Lecture notesA manuscript is made available.
Literature-B.L. van der Waerden, Group Theory and Quantum Mechanics, Springer Verlag. ("Old" but still modern).
- L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshitz, Lehrbuch der Theor. Pyhsik, Band III, "Quantenmechanik", Akademie-Verlag Berlin, 1979, Kap. XII and
Ibidem, Band V, "Statistische Physik", Teil 1, Akademie-Verlag 1987, Kap. XIII and XIV. (Very concise and practical)
-A. Fässler, E. Stiefel, Group Theoretical Methods and Their applications, Birkhäuser. (A classical book on practical group theory, from a strong ETHZ school).
- C. Isham, Lectures on group and vector spaces for physicists, World Scientific. (More mathematical but very didactical)
402-0536-00LFerromagnetism: From Thin Films to Spintronics
Special Students UZH must book the module PHY434 directly at UZH.
W6 credits3GR. Allenspach
AbstractThis course extends the introductory course "Introduction to Magnetism" to the latest, modern topics in research in magnetism and spintronics.
After a short revisit of the basic magnetism concepts, emphasis is put on novel phenomena in (ultra)thin films and small magnetic structures, displaying effects not encountered in bulk magnetism.
ObjectiveKnowing the most important concepts and applications of ferromagnetism, in particular on the nanoscale (thin films, small structures). Being able to read and understand scientific articles at the front of research in this area. Learn to know how and why magnetic storage, sensors, memories and logic concepts function. Learn to condense and present the results of a research articles so that colleagues understand.
ContentMagnetization curves, magnetic domains, magnetic anisotropy; novel effects in ultrathin magnetic films and multilayers: interlayer exchange, spin transport; magnetization dynamics, spin precession.
Applications: Magnetic data storage, magnetic memories, spin-based electronics, also called spintronics.
Lecture notesLecture notes will be handed out (in English).
Prerequisites / NoticeThis course can be easily followed also without having attended the "Introduction to Magnetism" course.
Language: English.
402-0318-00LSemiconductor Materials: Characterization, Processing and DevicesW6 credits2V + 1US. Schön, W. Wegscheider
AbstractThis course gives an introduction into the fundamentals of semiconductor materials. The main focus in this semester is on state-of-the-art characterization, semiconductor processing and devices.
ObjectiveBasic knowledge of semiconductor physics and technology. Application of this knowledge for state-of-the-art semiconductor device processing
Content1. Material characterization: structural and chemical methods
1.1 X-ray diffraction methods (Powder diffraction, HRXRD, XRR, RSM)
1.2 Electron microscopy Methods (SEM, EDX, TEM, STEM, EELS)
1.3 SIMS, RBS
2. Material characterization: electronic methods
2.1 van der Pauw techniquel2.2 Floating zone method
2.2 Hall effect
2.3 Cyclotron resonance spectroscopy
2.4. Quantum Hall effect
3. Material characterization: Optical methods
3.1 Absorption methods
3.2 Photoluminescence methods
3.3 FTIR, Raman spectroscopy
4. Semiconductor processing: lithography
4.1 Optical lithography methods
4.2 Electron beam lithography
4.3 FIB lithography
4.4 Scanning probe lithography
4.5 Direct growth methods (CEO, Nanowires)
5. Semiconductor processing: structuring of layers and devices
5.1 Wet etching methods
5.2 Dry etching methods (RIE, ICP, ion milling)
5.3 Physical vapor depositon methods (thermal, e-beam, sputtering)
5.4 Chemical vapor Deposition methods (PECVD, LPCVD, ALD)
5.5 Cleanroom basics & tour
6. Semiconductor devices
6.1 Semiconductor lasers
6.2 LED & detectors
6.3 Solar cells
6.4 Transistors (FET, HBT, HEMT)
Lecture noteshttps://moodle-app2.let.ethz.ch/course/view.php?id=14636
Prerequisites / NoticeThe "compulsory performance element" of this lecture is a short presentation of a research paper complementing the lecture topics. Several topics and corresponding papers will be offered on the moodle page of this lecture.
402-0538-16LIntroduction to Magnetic Resonance for Physicists
Does not take place this semester.
W6 credits2V + 1UC. Degen
AbstractThis course provides the fundamental principles of magnetic resonance and discusses its applications in physics and other disciplines.
ObjectiveMagnetic resonance is a textbook example of quantum mechanics that has made its way into numerous applications. It describes the response of nuclear and electronic spins to radio-frequency magnetic fields. The aim of this course is to provide the basic concepts of magnetic resonance while making connections of relevancy to other areas of science.
After completing this course, students will understand the basic interactions of spins and how they are manipulated and detected. They will be able to calculate and simulate the quantum dynamics of spin systems. Examples of current-day applications in solid state physics, quantum information, magnetic resonance tomography, and biomolecular structure determination will also be integrated.
ContentFundamentals and Applications of Magnetic Resonance
- Historical Perspective
- Bloch Equations
- Quantum Picture of Magnetic Resonance
- Spin Hamiltonian
- Pulsed Magnetic Resonance
- Spin Relaxation
- Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Ferromagnetic Resonance
- Signal Detection
- Modern Topics and Applications of Magnetic Resonance
Lecture notesClass Notes and Handouts
Literature1) Charles Slichter, "Principles of Magnetic Resonance"
2) Anatole Abragam, "The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism"
Prerequisites / NoticeBasic knowledge of quantum mechanics is not formally required but highly advantageous.
402-0596-00LElectronic Transport in NanostructuresW6 credits2V + 1UT. M. Ihn
AbstractThe lecture discusses modern topics in quantum transport through nanostructures including the underlying materials. Topics are: the quantum Hall effects with emphasis on the fractional quantum Hall effect, two-dimensional topological insulators, graphene and other 2D layered materials, quantum interferometers, quantum dot qubits for quantum information processing, decoherence of quantum states
ObjectiveStudents are able to understand modern experiments in the field of electronic transport in nanostructures. They can critically reflect published research in this field and explain it to an audience of physicists. Students know and understand the fundamental phenomena of electron transport in the quantum regime and their significance. They are able to apply their knowledge to practical experiments in a modern research lab.
Lecture notesThe lecture is based on the book:
T. Ihn, Semiconductor Nanostructures: Quantum States and Electronic Transport, ISBN 978-0-19-953442-5, Oxford University Press, 2010.
Prerequisites / NoticeA solid basis in quantum mechanics, electrostatics, quantum statistics and in solid state physics is required. Having passed the lecture Semiconductor Nanostructures (fall semester) may be advantageous, but is not required.

Students of the Master in Micro- and Nanosystems should at least have attended the lecture by David Norris, Introduction to quantum mechanics for engineers. They should also have passed the exam of the lecture Semiconductor Nanostructures.
402-0564-00LSolid State Optics
Does not take place this semester.
W6 credits2V + 1UL. Degiorgi
AbstractThe interaction of light with the condensed matter is the basic idea and principal foundation of several experimental spectroscopic methods. This lecture is devoted to the presentation of those experimental methods and techniques, which allow the study of the electrodynamic response of solids. I will also discuss recent experimental results on materials of high interest in the on-going solid-stat
ObjectiveThe lecture will give a basic introduction to optical spectroscopic methods in solid state physics.
ContentChapter 1
Maxwell equations and interaction of light with the medium
Chapter 2
Experimental methods: a survey
Chapter 3
Kramers-Kronig relations; optical functions
Chapter 4
Drude-Lorentz phenomenological method
Chapter 5
Electronic interband transitions and band structure effects
Chapter 6
Selected examples: strongly correlated systems and superconductors
Lecture notesmanuscript (in english) is provided.
LiteratureF. Wooten, in Optical Properties of Solids, (Academic Press, New York, 1972) and
M. Dressel and G. Gruener, in Electrodynamics of Solids, (Cambridge University Press, 2002).
Prerequisites / NoticeExercises will be proposed every week for one hour. There will be also the possibility to prepare a short presentations based on recent scientific literature (more at the beginning of the lecture).
402-0528-12LUltrafast Methods in Solid State PhysicsW6 credits2V + 1US. Johnson, M. Savoini
AbstractIn condensed matter physics, “ultrafast” refers to dynamics on the picosecond and femtosecond time scales, the time scales where atoms vibrate and electronic spins flip. Measuring real-time dynamics on these time scales is key to understanding materials in nonequilibrium states. This course offers an overview and understanding of the methods used to accomplish this in modern research laboratories.
ObjectiveThe goal of the course is to enable students to identify and evaluate experimental methods to manipulate and measure the electronic, magnetic and structural properties of solids on the fastest possible time scales. This offers new fundamental insights on the couplings that bind solid-state systems together. It also opens the door to new technological applications in data storage and processing involving metastable states that can be reached only by driving systems far from equilibrium. This course offers an overview of ultrafast methods as applied to condensed matter physics. Students will learn which methods are appropriate for studying relevant scientific questions, and will be able to describe their relative advantages and limitations.
ContentThe topical course outline is as follows:

Chapter 1: Introduction

- Important time scales for dynamics in solids and their applications
- Time-domain versus frequency-domain experiments
- The pump-probe technique: general advantages and limits

Chapter 2: Overview of ultrafast processes in solids

- Carrier dynamics in response to ultrafast laser interactions
- Dynamics of the lattice: coherent vs. incoherent phonons
- Ultrafast magnetic phenomena

Chapter 3: Ultrafast optical-frequency methods

- Ultrafast laser sources (oscillators and amplifiers)
- Generating broadband pulses
- Second and third order harmonic generation
- Optical parametric amplification
- Fluorescence spectroscopy
- Advanced optical pump-probe techniques

Chapter 4: THz- and mid-infrared frequency methods

- Low frequency interactions with solids
- Difference frequency mixing
- Optical rectification
- Time-domain spectroscopy

Chapter 5: VUV and x-ray frequency methods

- Synchrotron based sources
- Free electron lasers
- High-harmonic generation
- X-ray diffraction
- Time-resolved X-ray microscopy & coherent imaging
- Time-resolved core-level spectroscopies

Chapter 6: Time-resolved electron methods

- Ultrafast electron diffraction
- Time-resolved electron microscopy
Lecture notesWill be distributed via moodle.
LiteratureWill be distributed via moodle.
Prerequisites / NoticeAlthough the course "Ultrafast Processes in Solids" (402-0526-00L) is useful as a companion to this course, it is not a prerequisite.
402-0532-00LQuantum Solid State Magnetism
Does not take place this semester.
W6 credits2V + 1U
AbstractThis course is based on the principal modern tools used to study collective magnetic phenomena in the Solid State, namely correlation and response functions. It is quite quantitative, but doesn't contain any "fancy" mathematics. Instead, the theoretical aspects are balanced by numerous experimental examples and case studies. It is aimed at theorists and experimentalists alike.
ObjectiveLearn the modern theoretical foundations and "language", as well as principles and capabilities of the latest experimental techniques, used to describe and study collective magnetic phenomena in the Solid State.
Content- Magnetic response and correlation functions. Analytic properties. Fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Experimental methods to measure static and dynamic correlations.

- Magnetic response and correlations in metals. Diamagnetism and paramagnetism. Magnetic ground states: ferromagnetism, spin density waves. Excitations in metals, spin waves. Experimental examples.

- Magnetic response and correlations of magnetic ions in crystals: quantum numbers and effective Hamiltonians. Application of group theory to classifying ionic states. Experimental case studies.

- Magnetic response and correlations in magnetic insulators. Effective Hamiltonians. Magnetic order and propagation vector formalism. The use of group theory to classify magnetic structures. Determination of magnetic structures from diffraction data. Excitations: spin wave theory and beyond. "Triplons". Measuring spin wave spectra.
Lecture notesA comprehensive textbook-like script is provided.
LiteratureIn principle, the script is suffient as study material. Additional reading:

-"Magnetism in Condensed Matter" by S. Blundell
-"Quantum Theory of Magnetism: Magnetic properties of Materials" by R. M. White
-"Lecture notes on Electron Correlations and Magnetism" by P. Fazekas
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisite:
402-0861-00L Statistical Physics
402-0501-00L Solid State Physics

Not prerequisite, but a good companion course:
402-0871-00L Solid State Theory
402-0257-00L Advanced Solid State Physics
402-0535-00L Introduction to Magnetism
327-2130-00LIntroducing Photons, Neutrons and Muons for Materials Characterisation Restricted registration - show details
Only for MSc Materials Science and MSc Physics.
W2 credits3GA. Hrabec
AbstractThe course takes place at the campus of the Paul Scherrer Institute. The program consists of introductory lectures on the use of photons, neutrons and muons for materials characterization, as well as tours of the large scale facilities of PSI.
ObjectiveThe aim of the course is that the students acquire a basic understanding on the interaction of photons, neutrons and muons with matter and how one can use these as tools to solve specific problems.
ContentThe course runs for one week in June (21st to 25th), 2021. It takes place at the campus of the Paul Scherrer Institute. The morning consists of introductory lectures on the use of photons, neutrons and muons for materials characterization. In the afternoon tours of the large scale facilities of PSI (Swiss Light Source, Swiss Spallation Neutron Source, Swiss Muon Source, Swiss Free Electron Laser), are foreseen, as well as in depth visits to some of the instruments. At the end of the week, the students are required to give an oral presentation about a scientific topic involving the techniques discussed. Time for the presentation preparations will be allocated in the afternoon.



• Interaction of photons, neutrons and muons with matter

• Production of photons, neutrons and muons

• Experimental setups: optics and detectors

• Crystal symmetry, Bragg’s law, reciprocal lattice, structure factors

• Elastic and inelastic scattering with neutrons and photons

• X-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

• Polarized neutron scattering for the study of magnetic materials

• Imaging techniques using x-rays and neutrons

• Introduction to muon spin rotation

• Applications of muon spin rotation
Lecture notesSlides from the lectures will be available on the internet prior to the lectures.
Literature• Philip Willmott: An Introduction to Synchrotron Radiation: Techniques and Applications, Wiley, 2011

• J. Als-Nielsen and D. McMorrow: Elements of Modern X-Ray Physics, Wiley, 2011.

• G.L. Squires, Introduction to the Theory of Thermal Neutron Scattering, Dover Publications (1997).

• Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation, and Resonance, Applications to Condensed Matter"

Alain Yaouanc and Pierre Dalmas de Réotier, Oxford University Press, ISBN: 9780199596478

• “Physics with Muons: from Atomic Physics to Condensed Matter Physics”, A. Amato

https://www.psi.ch/lmu/EducationLecturesEN/A_Amato_05_06_2018.pdf
Prerequisites / NoticeThis is a block course for students who have attended courses on condensed matter or materials physics.

Registration at PSI website (http://indico.psi.ch/event/PSImasterschool) required by March 17th, 2021.
402-0533-00LQuantum Acoustics and Optomechanics
Does not take place this semester.
W6 credits2V + 1UY. Chu
AbstractThis course gives an introduction to the interaction of mechanical motion with electromagnetic fields in the quantum regime. There are parallels between the quantum descriptions of mechanical resonators, electrical circuits, and light, but each system also has its own unique properties. We will explore how interfacing them can be useful for technological applications and fundamental science.
ObjectiveThe goal of this course is provide the introductory knowledge necessary to understand current research in quantum acoustics and optomechanics. As part of this goal, we will also cover some related aspects of acoustics, quantum optics, and circuit/cavity quantum electrodynamics.
ContentThe focus of this course will be on the properties of and interactions between mechanical and electromagnetic systems in the context of quantum information and technologies. We will only briefly touch upon precision measurement and sensing with optomechanics since it is the topic of another course (227-0653-00L). Some topics that will be covered are:
- Mechanical motion and acoustics in solid state materials
- Quantum description of motion, electrical circuits, and light.
- Different models for quantum interactions: optomechanical, Jaynes-Cummings, etc.
- Mechanisms for mechanical coupling to electromagnetic fields: piezoelectricity, electrostriction, radiation pressure, etc.
- Coherent interactions vs. dissipative processes: phenomenon and applications in different regimes.
- State-of the art electromechanical and optomechanical systems.
Lecture notesNotes will be provided for each lecture.
LiteratureParts of books and research papers will be used.
Prerequisites / NoticeBasic knowledge of quantum mechanics would be highly useful.
402-0532-50LQuantum Solid State Magnetism IIW6 credits2V + 1UK. Povarov
AbstractThis course covers the modern developments and problems in the field of solid state magnetism. It has the special emphasis on the phenomena that go beyond semiclassical approximation, such as quantum paramagnets, spin liquids and magnetic frustration. The course is aimed at both the experimentalists and theorists, and the theoretical concepts are balanced by the experimental data.
ObjectiveLearn the modern approach to the complex magnetic phases of matter and the transitions between them. A number of theoretical approaches that go beyond the linear spin wave theory will be discussed during the course, and an overview of the experimental status quo will be given.
Content- Phase transitions in the magnetic matter. Classical and quantum criticality. Consequences of broken symmetries for the spectral properties. Absence of order in the low-dimensional systems. Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition and its relevance to “layered” magnets.

- Failures of linear spin wave theory. Spin wave decays. Antiferromagnets as bosonic systems. Gapped “quantum paramagnets” and their phase diagrams. Extended spin wave theory. Magnetic “Bose-Einstein condensation”.

- Spin systems in one dimension: XY, Ising and Heisenberg model. Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem. Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid description of the XXZ spin chains. Spin ladders and Haldane chains. Critical points in one dimension and generalized phase diagram.

- Effects of disorder in magnets. Harris criterion. “Spin islands” in depleted gapped magnets.

- Introduction into magnetic frustration. Order-from-disorder phenomena and triangular lattice in the magnetic field. Frustrated chain and frustrated square lattice models. Exotic magnetic states in two dimensions.
Lecture notesA comprehensive textbook-like script is provided.
LiteratureIn principle, the script is sufficient as study material. Additional reading:

-"Interacting Electrons and Quantum Magnetism" by A. Auerbach
-"Basic Aspects of The Quantum Theory of Solids " by D. Khomskii
-"Quantum Physics in One Dimension" by T. Giamarchi
-"Quantum Theory of Magnetism: Magnetic properties of Materials" by R. M. White
-"Frustrated Spin Systems" ed. H. T. Diep
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisite:
402-0861-00L Statistical Physics
402-0501-00L Solid State Physics


Not prerequisite, but a good companion course:
402-0871-00L Solid State Theory
402-0257-00L Advanced Solid State Physics
402-0535-00L Introduction to Magnetism
402-0532-00L Quantum Solid State Magnetism I
Selection: Quantum Electronics
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
402-0468-15LNanomaterials for PhotonicsW6 credits2V + 1UR. Grange, R. Savo
AbstractThe lecture describes various nanomaterials (semiconductor, metal, dielectric, carbon-based...) for photonic applications (optoelectronics, plasmonics, ordered and disordered structures...). It starts with concepts of light-matter interactions, then the fabrication methods, the optical characterization techniques, the description of the properties and the state-of-the-art applications.
ObjectiveThe students will acquire theoretical and experimental knowledge about the different types of nanomaterials (semiconductors, metals, dielectric, carbon-based, ...) and their uses as building blocks for advanced applications in photonics (optoelectronics, plasmonics, photonic crystal, ...). Together with the exercises, the students will learn (1) to read, summarize and discuss scientific articles related to the lecture, (2) to estimate order of magnitudes with calculations using the theory seen during the lecture, (3) to prepare a short oral presentation and report about one topic related to the lecture, and (4) to imagine an original photonic device.
Content1. Introduction to nanomaterials for photonics
a. Classification of nanomaterials
b. Light-matter interaction at the nanoscale
c. Examples of nanophotonic devices

2. Wave physics for nanophotonics
a. Wavelength, wave equation, wave propagation
b. Dispersion relation
c. Interference
d. Scattering and absorption
e. Coherent and incoherent light

3. Analogies between photons and electrons
a. Quantum wave description
b. How to confine photons and electrons
c. Tunneling effects

4. Characterization of Nanomaterials
a. Optical microscopy: Bright and dark field, fluorescence, confocal, High resolution: PALM (STORM), STED
b. Light scattering techniques: DLS
c. Near field microscopy: SNOM
d. Electron microscopy: SEM, TEM
e. Scanning probe microscopy: STM, AFM
f. X-ray diffraction: XRD, EDS

5. Fabrication of nanomaterials
a. Top-down approach
b. Bottom-up approach

6. Plasmonics
a. What is a plasmon, Drude model
b. Surface plasmon and localized surface plasmon (sphere, rod, shell)
c. Theoretical models to calculate the radiated field: electrostatic approximation and Mie scattering
d. Fabrication of plasmonic structures: Chemical synthesis, Nanofabrication
e. Applications

7. Organic and inorganic nanomaterials
a. Organic quantum-confined structure: nanomers and quantum dots.
b. Carbon nanotubes: properties, bandgap description, fabrication
c. Graphene: motivation, fabrication, devices
d. Nanomarkers for biophotonics

8. Semiconductors
a. Crystalline structure, wave function
b. Quantum well: energy levels equation, confinement
c. Quantum wires, quantum dots
d. Optical properties related to quantum confinement
e. Example of effects: absorption, photoluminescence
f. Solid-state-lasers: edge emitting, surface emitting, quantum cascade

9. Photonic crystals
a. Analogy photonic and electronic crystal, in nature
b. 1D, 2D, 3D photonic crystal
c. Theoretical modelling: frequency and time domain technique
d. Features: band gap, local enhancement, superprism...

10. Nanocomposites
a. Effective medium regime
b. Metamaterials
c. Multiple scattering regime
d. Complex media: structural colour, random lasers, nonlinear disorder
Lecture notesSlides and book chapter will be available for downloading
LiteratureReferences will be given during the lecture
Prerequisites / NoticeBasics of solid-state physics (i.e. energy bands) can help
402-0470-17LOptical Frequency Combs: Physics and Applications
Does not take place this semester.
W6 credits2V + 1UG. Scalari, J. Faist
AbstractIn this lecture, the goal is to review the physics behind mode-locking in these various devices, as well as discuss the most important novelties and applications of the newly developed sources.
ObjectiveIn this lecture, the goal is to review the physics behind mode-locking in these various devices, as well as discuss the most important novelties and applications of the newly developed sources.
ContentSince their invention, the optical frequency combs have shown to be a key technological tool with applications in a variety of fields ranging from astronomy, metrology, spectroscopy and telecommunications. Concomitant with this expansion of the application domains, the range of technologies that have been used to generate optical frequency combs has recently widened to include, beyond the solid-state and fiber mode-locked lasers, optical parametric oscillators, microresonators and quantum cascade lasers.
In this lecture, the goal is to review the physics behind mode-locking in these various devices, as well as discuss the most important novelties and applications of the newly developed sources.

Chapt 1: Fundamentals of optical frequency comb generation
- Physics of mode-locking: time domain picture
Propagation and stability of a pulse, soliton formation
- Dispersion compensation
Solid-state and fiber mode-locked laser
Chapt 2: Direct generation
Microresonator combs: Lugiato-Lefever equation, solitons
Quantum cascade laser: Frequency domain picture of the mode-locking
Mid-infrared and terahertz QCL combs
Chapt 3: Non-linear optics
DFG, OPOs
Chapt 4: Comb diagnostics and noise
Jitter, linewidth
Chapt 5: Self-referenced combs and their applications
Chapt 6: Dual combs and their applications to spectroscopy
402-0498-00LTrapped-Ion PhysicsW6 credits2V + 1UD. Kienzler
AbstractThis course covers the physics of trapped ions at the quantum level described as harmonic oscillators coupled to spin systems, for which the 2012 Nobel prize was awarded. Trapped-ion systems have achieved an extraordinary level of control and provide leading technologies for quantum information processing and quantum metrology.
ObjectiveThe objective is to provide a basis for understanding the wide range of research currently being performed with trapped ion systems: fundamental quantum mechanics with spin-spring systems, quantum information processing and quantum metrology. During the course students would expect to gain an understanding of the current frontier of research in these areas, and the challenges which must be overcome to make further advances. This should provide a solid background for tackling recently published research in these fields, including experimental realisations of quantum information processing using trapped ions.
ContentThis course will cover trapped-ion physics. It aims to cover both theoretical and experimental aspects. In all experimental settings the role of decoherence and the quantum-classical transition is of great importance, and this will therefore form one of the key components of the course. The topics of the course were cited in the Nobel prize which was awarded to David Wineland in 2012.

Topics which will be covered include:
- Fundamental working principles of ion traps and modern trap geometries, quantum description of motion of trapped ions
- Electronic structure of atomic ions, manipulation of the electronic state, Rabi- and Ramsey-techniques, principle of an atomic clock
- Quantum description of the coupling of electronic and motional degrees of freedom
- Laser cooling
- Quantum state engineering of coherent, squeezed, cat, grid and entangled states
- Trapped ion quantum information processing basics and scaling, current challenges
- Quantum metrology with trapped ions: quantum logic spectroscopy, optical clocks, search for physics beyond the standard model using high-precision spectroscopy
LiteratureS. Haroche and J-M. Raimond "Exploring the Quantum" (recommended)
M. Scully and M.S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (recommended)
Prerequisites / NoticeThe preceding attendance of the scheduled lecture Quantum Optics (402-0442-00L) or a comparable course is required.
402-0558-00LCrystal Optics in Intense Light FieldsW6 credits2V + 1UM. Fiebig
AbstractBecause of their aesthetic nature crystals are termed "flowers of mineral kingdom". The aesthetic aspect is closely related to the symmetry of the crystals which in turn determines their optical properties. It is the purpose of this course to stimulate the understanding of these relations with a particular focus on those phenomena occurring in intense light fields as they are provided by lasers.
ObjectiveIn this course students will at first acquire a systematic knowledge of classical crystal-optical phenomena and the experimental and theoretical tools to describe them. This will be the basis for the core part of the lecture in which they will learn how to characterize ferroelectric, (anti)ferromagnetic and other forms of ferroic order and their interaction by nonlinear optical techniques. See also http://www.ferroic.mat.ethz.ch/research/index.
ContentCrystal classes and their symmetry; basic group theory; optical properties in the absence and presence of external forces; focus on magnetooptical phenomena; density-matrix formalism of light-matter interaction; microscopy of linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities; second harmonic generation (SHG); characterization of ferroic order by SHG; outlook towards other nonlinear optical effects: devices, ultrafast processes, etc.
Lecture notesExtensive material will be provided throughout the lecture.
Literature(1) R. R. Birss, Symmetry and Magnetism, North-Holland (1966)
(2) R. E. Newnham: Properties of Materials: Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure, Oxford University (2005)
(3) A. K. Zvezdin, V. A. Kotov: Modern Magnetooptics & Magnetooptical Materials, Taylor/Francis (1997)
(4) Y. R. Shen: The Principles of Nonlinear Optics, Wiley (2002)
(5) K. H. Bennemann: Nonlinear Optics in Metals, Oxford University (1999)
Prerequisites / NoticeBasic knowledge in solid state physics and quantum (perturbation) theory will be very useful. The lecture is addressed to students in physics and students in materials science with an affinity to physics.
402-0466-15LQuantum Optics with Photonic Crystals, Plasmonics and MetamaterialsW6 credits2V + 1UG. Scalari
AbstractIn this lecture, we would like to review new developments in the emerging topic of quantum optics in very strongly confined structures, with an emphasis on sources and photon statistics as well as the coupling between optical and mechanical degrees of freedom.
ObjectiveIntegration and miniaturisation have strongly characterised fundamental research and industrial applications in the last decades, both for photonics and electronics.
The objective of this lecture is to provide insight into the most recent solid-state implementations of strong light-matter interaction, from micro and nano cavities to nano lasers and quantum optics. The content of the lecture focuses on the achievement of extremely subwavelength radiation confinement in electronic and optical resonators. Such resonant structures are then functionalized by integrating active elements to achieve devices with extremely reduced dimensions and exceptional performances. Plasmonic lasers, Purcell emitters are discussed as well as ultrastrong light matter coupling and opto-mechanical systems.
Content1. Light confinement
1.1. Photonic crystals
1.1.1. Band structure
1.1.2. Slow light and cavities
1.2. Plasmonics
1.2.1. Light confinement in metallic structures
1.2.2. Metal optics and waveguides
1.2.3. Graphene plasmonics
1.3. Metamaterials
1.3.1. Electric and magnetic response at optical frequencies
1.3.2. Negative index, cloacking, left-handness

2. Light coupling in cavities
2.1. Strong coupling
2.1.1. Polariton formation
2.1.2. Strong and ultra-strong coupling
2.2. Strong coupling in microcavities
2.2.1. Planar cavities, polariton condensation
2.3. Polariton dots
2.3.1. Microcavities
2.3.2. Photonic crystals
2.3.3. Metamaterial-based

3. Photon generation and statistics
3.1. Purcell emitters
3.1.1. Single photon sources
3.1.2. THz emitters
3.2. Microlasers
3.2.1. Plasmonic lasers: where is the limit?
3.2.2. g(1) and g(2) of microlasers
3.3. Optomecanics
3.3.1. Micro ring cavities
3.3.2. Photonic crystals
3.3.3. Superconducting resonators
402-0484-00LExperimental and Theoretical Aspects of Quantum Gases Information
Does not take place this semester.
W6 credits2V + 1UT. Esslinger
AbstractQuantum Gases are the most precisely controlled many-body systems in physics. This provides a unique interface between theory and experiment, which allows addressing fundamental concepts and long-standing questions. This course lays the foundation for the understanding of current research in this vibrant field.
ObjectiveThe lecture conveys a basic understanding for the current research on quantum gases. Emphasis will be put on the connection between theory and experimental observation. It will enable students to read and understand publications in this field.
ContentCooling and trapping of neutral atoms

Bose and Fermi gases

Ultracold collisions

The Bose-condensed state

Elementary excitations

Vortices

Superfluidity

Interference and Correlations

Optical lattices
Lecture notesnotes and material accompanying the lecture will be provided
LiteratureC. J. Pethick and H. Smith, Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute Gases,
Cambridge.
Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics, Vol. CXL,
ed. M. Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C.E. Wieman (IOS Press, Amsterdam,
1999).
402-0444-00LAdvanced Quantum Optics
Does not take place this semester.
W6 credits2V + 1UA. Imamoglu
AbstractThis course builds up on the material covered in the Quantum Optics course. The emphasis will be on quantum optics in condensed-matter systems.
ObjectiveThe course aims to provide the knowledge necessary for pursuing advanced research in the field of Quantum Optics in condensed matter systems. Fundamental concepts and techniques of Quantum Optics will be linked to experimental research in systems such as quantum dots, exciton-polaritons, quantum Hall fluids and two-dimensional materials.
ContentDescription of open quantum systems using master equation and quantum trajectories. Decoherence and quantum measurements. Dicke superradiance. Dissipative phase transitions. Signatures of electron-exciton and electron-electron interactions in optical response.
Lecture notesLecture notes will be provided
LiteratureC. Cohen-Tannoudji et al., Atom-Photon-Interactions (recommended)
Y. Yamamoto and A. Imamoglu, Mesoscopic Quantum Optics (recommended)
A collection of review articles (will be pointed out during the lecture)
Prerequisites / NoticeMasters level quantum optics knowledge
402-0486-00LFrontiers of Quantum Gas Research: Few- and Many-Body Physics
Does not take place this semester.
W6 credits2V + 1U
AbstractThe lecture will discuss the most relevant recent research in the field of quantum gases. Bosonic and fermionic quantum gases with emphasis on strong interactions will be studied. The topics include low dimensional systems, optical lattices and quantum simulation, the BEC-BCS crossover and the unitary Fermi gas, transport phenomena, and quantum gases in optical cavities.
ObjectiveThe lecture is intended to convey an advanced understanding for the current research on quantum gases. Emphasis will be put on the connection between theory and experimental observation. It will enable students to follow current publications in this field.
ContentQuantum gases in one and two dimensions
Optical lattices, Hubbard physics and quantum simulation
Strongly interacting Fermions: the BEC-BCS crossover and the unitary Fermi gas
Transport phenomena in ultracold gases
Quantum gases in optical cavities
Lecture notesno script
LiteratureC. J. Pethick and H. Smith, Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute Gases, Cambridge.
T. Giamarchi, Quantum Physics in one dimension
I. Bloch, J. Dalibard, W. Zwerger, Many-body physics with ultracold gases, Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 885 (2008)
Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics, Vol. CLXIV, ed. M. Inguscio, W. Ketterle, and C. Salomon (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 2007).
Additional literature will be distributed during the lecture
Prerequisites / NoticePresumably, Prof. Päivi Törmä from Aalto university in Finland will give part of the course. The exercise classes will be partly in the form of a Journal Club, in which a student presents the achievements of a recent important research paper. More information available on http://www.quantumoptics.ethz.ch/
151-0172-00LMicrosystems II: Devices and Applications Information W6 credits3V + 3UC. Hierold, C. I. Roman
AbstractThe students are introduced to the fundamentals and physics of microelectronic devices as well as to microsystems in general (MEMS). They will be able to apply this knowledge for system research and development and to assess and apply principles, concepts and methods from a broad range of technical and scientific disciplines for innovative products.
ObjectiveThe students are introduced to the fundamentals and physics of microelectronic devices as well as to microsystems in general (MEMS), basic electronic circuits for sensors, RF-MEMS, chemical microsystems, BioMEMS and microfluidics, magnetic sensors and optical devices, and in particular to the concepts of Nanosystems (focus on carbon nanotubes), based on the respective state-of-research in the field. They will be able to apply this knowledge for system research and development and to assess and apply principles, concepts and methods from a broad range of technical and scientific disciplines for innovative products.

During the weekly 3 hour module on Mondays dedicated to Übungen the students will learn the basics of Comsol Multiphysics and utilize this software to simulate MEMS devices to understand their operation more deeply and optimize their designs.
ContentTransducer fundamentals and test structures
Pressure sensors and accelerometers
Resonators and gyroscopes
RF MEMS
Acoustic transducers and energy harvesters
Thermal transducers and energy harvesters
Optical and magnetic transducers
Chemical sensors and biosensors, microfluidics and bioMEMS
Nanosystem concepts
Basic electronic circuits for sensors and microsystems
Lecture notesHandouts (on-line)
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