Search result: Catalogue data in Autumn Semester 2021

Geomatics Master Information
Major Courses
Major in Engineering Geodesy and Photogrammetry
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
103-0287-00LImage InterpretationO4 credits3GK. Schindler
AbstractApplication of machine learning in satellite-based Earth observation; methodological and practical aspects of remote sensing data analysis, including atmospheric correction, image feature extraction, image classification and segmentation, regression of physical parameters
ObjectiveLearn how to apply image analysis and machine learning to image interpretation tasks in remote sensing; hands-on experience in implementing automatic image analysis methods, and in judging their results.
ContentPreprocessing of satellite images, atmospheric correction; extraction of features (radiometric indices, texture descriptors, etc.) from raw image intensities; semantic image segmentation (e.g., cloud masking); physical parameter estimation (e.g., vegetation height); practical deployment of classical machine learning algorithms as well as deep neural networks for remote sensing data analysis; assessment of prediction results
Prerequisites / Noticebasic knowledge of machine learning; basic knowledge of image processing
103-0137-00LEngineering GeodesyO4 credits3GA. Wieser, J. Qiao
AbstractIntroduction to Engineering Geodesy: methods, instruments, and applications.
ObjectiveThe students will be introduced to the methods, instruments and applications in Engineering Geodesy with a focus on end-to-end quality assessment, sensor and multi-sensor-systems, setting out, and monitoring of engineering objects. They will be able to acquire enhanced knowledge and fundamental competences in high-precision angle, distance and height measurements. They will be introduced to aspects of interdisciplinary work in particular related to construction processes and civil engineering.
Content- Introduction: Definition, methods, and tasks
- Planning and realizing geodetic networks
- High precision distance, angle and height measurements
- Sensors and multi-sensor-systems
- Calibration and testing
- Engineering Geodesy in construction above and below ground
- Tunnel surveying
- Building Information Modeling (BIM)
- Deformation monitoring: Models, methods, and applications
Lecture notesThe slides and additional documents will be provided in electronic form.
LiteratureKavanagh B.F. (2010) Surveying with Construction Applications. Prentice Hall.

Schofield W., Breach M. (2007) Engineering Surveying. Elsevier Ltd.
Prerequisites / NoticeFundamental knowledge in geodetic metrology (applied geodesy), physical geodesy, reference systems, GNSS and parameter estimation is required for this course. This knowledge can for instance been acquired within the appropriate courses of the bachelor studies in Geomatics and Planning.
103-0267-01LPhotogrammetry and 3D Vision Lab
Prerequisites: It is suggested that students take the course "Photogrammetrie" at bachelor level before this one.
W3 credits2GC. Albl
AbstractThe aim of the course is to provide a hands-on experience with close-range photogrammetry. The students will go through all aspects of 3D reconstruction starting with the image acquisition, camera calibration, automatic sparse geometry reconstruction, and eventually produce a final textured 3D model.
ObjectiveThe aim of the course is to familiarize the students with both the practical aspects of close-range photogrammetric reconstruction and the theoretical foundations behind them. After passing the course, the students should be able to plan the image acquisition, perform the camera calibration, build a structure-from-motion pipeline using modern open-source libraries, produce a 3D model, and improve its quality.
ContentThis course builds in part on the courses "Photogrammetrie" and "Bildverarbeitung" from the Bachelor program. It focuses on the particular challenges of automated close-range photogrammetry. The students will obtain their own images using their own cameras/smartphones, learn how to perform the camera calibration, implement some key and interesting parts of the automatic reconstruction pipeline and learn how to avoid and address common issues in 3D reconstruction.
Lecture notesPresentation slides, necessary publications and complementary learning materials will be provided through a dedicated course web-site.
LiteratureRecommended textbooks:
- T. Luhmann. Nahbereichsphotogrammetrie (also available in English )
- R. Hartley and A. Zisserman. Multi-view geometry in computer vision
- R. Szeliski. Computer Vision
Prerequisites / NoticeA recommended prerequisite for taking this course are the Bachelor courses "Photogrammetrie" and "Bildverarbeitung". If you have not passed them, please contact the main lecturer of the course before enrolling. The course will include both practical work with commercial software, and programming in Python.
103-0787-00LProject Parameter EstimationW3 credits3PJ. A. Butt, T. Medic
AbstractSolving engineering problems with modern methods of parameter estimation for network adjustment in a real-world scenario; choosing adequate mathematical models, implementation and assessment of the solutions.
ObjectiveLearn to solve engineering problems with modern methods of parameter estimation in a real-world scenario.
ContentAnalysis of given problems, selection of appropriate mathematical modells, implementation and testing using Matlab: Kriging; system calibration of a terrestrial laser scanner.
Lecture notesThe task assignments and selected documentation will be provided as PDF.
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisite: Statistics and Probability Theory, Geoprocessing and Parameterestimation, Geodetic Reference Systems and Networks
102-0617-00LBasics and Principles of Radar Remote Sensing for Environmental ApplicationsW3 credits2GI. Hajnsek
AbstractThe course will provide the basics and principles of Radar Remote Sensing (specifically Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)) and its imaging techniques for the use of environmental parameter estimation.
ObjectiveThe course should provide an understanding of SAR techniques and the use of the imaging tools for bio/geophysical parameter estimation. At the end of the course the student has the understanding of
1. SAR basics and principles,
2. SAR polarimetry,
3. SAR interferometry and
4. environmental parameter estimation from multi-parametric SAR data
ContentThe course is giving an introduction into SAR techniques, the interpretation of SAR imaging responses and the use of SAR for different environmental applications. The outline of the course is the following:
1. Introduction into SAR basics and principles
2. Introduction into electromagnetic wave theory
3. Introduction into scattering theory and decomposition techniques
4. Introduction into SAR interferometry
5. Introduction into polarimetric SAR interferometry
6. Introduction into bio/geophysical parameter estimation (classification/segmentation, soil moisture estimation, earth quake and volcano monitoring, forest height inversion, wood biomass estimation etc.)
Lecture notesHandouts for each topic will be provided
LiteratureFirst readings for the course:
Woodhouse, I. H., Introduction into Microwave Remote Sensing, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2006.
Lee, J.-S., Pottier, E., Polarimetric Radar Imaging: From Basics to Applications, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2009.
Complete literature listing will be provided during the course.
103-0687-00LCadastral Systems Information W2 credits2GD. M. Steudler
AbstractNature, role and importance of cadastral systems and related concepts such as land administration, land registration and spatial data infrastructures (SDIs).
ObjectiveThe students will get an understanding of the nature, role and importance of cadastral systems and related concepts such as land administration, land registration and spatial data infrastructures (SDIs). The Swiss cadastral system as well as a range of international approaches both in developed and developing countries will be reviewed.
ContentOrigins and purposes of cadastral systems
Importance of documentation
Basic concepts of cadastral systems (real estate, legal basis, conceptual
principles, property-ownership, property types)
Swiss cadastral system:
- legal basis
- organization
- technical elements
- methods of data acquisition and maintenance
- profession
- quality assurance
Digital revolution, access to data
Benchmarking and evaluation of cadastral systems
International trends, developments and initiatives
Lecture notessee: http://www.geo21.ch/ethz/
LiteratureLarsson, G. (1991). Land Registration and Cadastral Systems: Tools for Land
Information and Management. Harlow, Essex, England: Longman Scientific and
Technical, New York: Wiley, ISBN 0-582-08952-2, 175 p.

see also: http://www.geo21.ch/ethz/
263-5902-00LComputer Vision Information W8 credits3V + 1U + 3AM. Pollefeys, S. Tang, F. Yu
AbstractThe goal of this course is to provide students with a good understanding of computer vision and image analysis techniques. The main concepts and techniques will be studied in depth and practical algorithms and approaches will be discussed and explored through the exercises.
ObjectiveThe objectives of this course are:
1. To introduce the fundamental problems of computer vision.
2. To introduce the main concepts and techniques used to solve those.
3. To enable participants to implement solutions for reasonably complex problems.
4. To enable participants to make sense of the computer vision literature.
ContentCamera models and calibration, invariant features, Multiple-view geometry, Model fitting, Stereo Matching, Segmentation, 2D Shape matching, Shape from Silhouettes, Optical flow, Structure from motion, Tracking, Object recognition, Object category recognition
Prerequisites / NoticeIt is recommended that students have taken the Visual Computing lecture or a similar course introducing basic image processing concepts before taking this course.
103-0820-00LIntroduction to Scientific ComputationW3 credits2GM. Usvyatsov
AbstractIntroduction to tools, techniques, and methods for data processing and analysis.
ObjectiveGet ready to work with data of different origin. Learn
Python and tools to the level which allows attacking data related
problems. Basic introduction to numerical algorithms for efficient
problem solving
ContentPython for scientific programming, fast numerical computations and data visualisation.
Libraries for data processing.
Prerequisites / NoticeBasic probability theory and statistics, linear algebra, basic programming skills
851-0724-01LReal Estate Property Law
Particularly suitable for students of D-ARCH, D-BAUG, D-USYS
W3 credits3VM. Huser, R. Müller-Wyss, S. Stucki
AbstractFundamental concepts of Land Register Law and Land Surveying Law (substantive and procedural rules of Land Register Law, the parts and the relevance of the Land Register, process of registration with the Land Register, legal problems of land surveying, reform of the official land surveying).
ObjectiveOverview of the legal norms of land registry and surveying law.
ContentBasic principles of material and formal land registry law, components of the land register, consequences of the land register, the registration process, legal problems of surveying, the reform of official surveying, liability of the geom-eter.
Lecture notesAbgegebene Unterlagen: Skript in digitaler Form

Pflichtlektüre: Meinrad Huser, Schweizerisches Vermessungsrecht, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Geoinformationsrechts und des Grundbuchrechts, Beiträge aus dem Institut für schweizerisches und internationales Baurecht der Universität Freiburg/Schweiz, Zürich 2014
Literature- Meinrad Huser, Schweizerisches Vermessungsrecht, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Geoinformationsrecht und des Grundbuchrechts, Zürich 2014
- Meinrad Huser, Geo-Informationsrecht, Rechtlicher Rahmen für Geographische Informationssyteme, Zürich 2005
- Meinrad Huser, Darstellung von Grenzen zur Sicherung dinglicher Rechte, in ZBGR 2013, 238 ff.
- Meinrad Huser, Baubeschränkungen und Grundbuch, in BR/DC 4/2016, 197 ff.
- Meinrad Huser, Publikation von Eigentumsbeschränkungen - neue Regeln, in Baurecht 4/2010, S. 169
- Meinrad Huser, Der Aufteilungsplan im Stockwerkeigentum: Neue Darstellung – grössere Rechtsverbindlichkeit, in ZBGR 2020, S. 203 ff.
- Meinrad Huser, Datenschutz bei Geodaten, in: Passadelis/Rosenthal/Thür, Datenschutzrecht, Basel 2015, S. 513 ff.
Taught competenciesTaught competencies
Subject-specific CompetenciesConcepts and Theoriesassessed
Techniques and Technologiesassessed
Method-specific CompetenciesAnalytical Competenciesassessed
Decision-makingassessed
Media and Digital Technologiesnot assessed
Problem-solvingassessed
Project Managementnot assessed
Social CompetenciesCommunicationnot assessed
Cooperation and Teamworkassessed
Customer Orientationassessed
Leadership and Responsibilitynot assessed
Self-presentation and Social Influence not assessed
Sensitivity to Diversityassessed
Negotiationassessed
Personal CompetenciesAdaptability and Flexibilitynot assessed
Creative Thinkingassessed
Critical Thinkingassessed
Integrity and Work Ethicsassessed
Self-awareness and Self-reflection assessed
Self-direction and Self-management not assessed
Major in Space Geodesy and Navigation
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
103-0187-01LSpace GeodesyO4 credits3GM. Rothacher
AbstractGNSS, VLBI, SLR/LLR and satellite altimetry: Principles, instrumentation and observation equation. Modelling and estimation of station coordinates and station motion. Ionospheric and tropospheric refraction and estimation of atmospheric parameters. Equation of motion of the unperturbed and perturbed satellite orbit. Perturbation theory and orbit determination.
ObjectiveUnderstanding the major observation techniques in space geodesy as modern methods applied in Earth system monitoring (geometry, rotation and gravity field of the Earth and the atmosphere), in national surveying and navigation.
ContentOverview of GNSS, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging (SLR/LLR), Satellite Radar Altimetry with the basic principles, the instruments and observation equations. Modelling of the station motions and the estimation of station coordinates. Basics of wave propagation in the atmosphere. Signal propagation in the ionosphere and troposphere for the different observation techniques and the determination of atmospheric parameters.
Equation of motion of the unperturbed and perturbed satellite orbit. Osculating and mean orbital elements. General and special perturbation theory and the determination of satellite orbits.
Lecture notesScript M. Rothacher "Space Geodesy"
103-0657-01LSignal Processing, Modeling, InversionO3 credits2GB. Soja
AbstractTopics related to time series analysis, modeling, parameter estimation, prediction, and interpretation. Theoretical concepts will be applied to geodetic problems.
ObjectiveStudents have various methods at hand to mathematically formulate specific scientific problems. They are able to analyse observational data, estimate numerical and analytical models, and predict parameters into the future. The students can evaluate and interpret measurements and models derived from them. They know the necessary terminology in order to study expert literature.
ContentTopics covered in this lecture include: time series analysis, Fourier transformation, stochastic processes, ARMA, analytical and numerical modeling, model selection, linear and non-linear parameter estimation, sequential parameter estimation and filtering, machine learning for time series analysis and prediction, interpretation of measurements and derived results. The theoretical concepts will be illustrated by concrete examples commonly found in geodetic applications.
Lecture notesLecture slides and notes
LiteratureScript Alain Geiger: Geoprocessing
Additional literature will be referred to in class
Prerequisites / NoticeCourses corresponding to: Analysis I+II, Linear Algebra I, Parameter Estimation
103-0627-00LSpace Geodesy LabW5 credits3PG. Möller, R. Hohensinn, M. Rothacher, B. Soja
AbstractSpace Geodesy Lab allows you to deepen your knowledge about space-geodetic techniques, in particular of GNSS, VLBI, SLR, satellite altimetry and gravity missions for monitoring the environment and changes within the Earth system.
ObjectiveStudents enrolled in this course will be given the possibility to learn about space-geodetic methods to solve a specific research problem. As a result, you will become familiar with the entire processing chain from gathering of raw measurements to geodetic products like reference frames, station motions, Earth orientation parameters, atmospheric and climate variables, or the Earth gravity field and its variations.
ContentFor a small project based on space geodetic measurements and methods (or a related project of your choice), you or a group of 2-3 students will be provided with the necessary equipment, access to data and analysis tools for solving a research question. Therefore, we expect autonomous development, planning, data analysis and interpretation of the results. At the end of the semester you will be ask to present your findings and to submit a report summarizing your semester activities. As needed, further background will be given during the semester.
Lecture notesdiv. sources
LiteratureM. Rothacher – Space Geodesy lecture notes
Additional literature will be distributed during lectures
Prerequisites / NoticeBasic knowledge about satellite geodesy, reference frames and the Earth gravity field. Programming skills in Matlab, Python or similar.
Taught competenciesTaught competencies
Subject-specific CompetenciesConcepts and Theoriesassessed
Techniques and Technologiesassessed
Method-specific CompetenciesAnalytical Competenciesassessed
Decision-makingassessed
Media and Digital Technologiesnot assessed
Problem-solvingassessed
Project Managementassessed
Social CompetenciesCommunicationassessed
Cooperation and Teamworkassessed
Customer Orientationnot assessed
Leadership and Responsibilitynot assessed
Self-presentation and Social Influence assessed
Sensitivity to Diversitynot assessed
Negotiationnot assessed
Personal CompetenciesAdaptability and Flexibilityassessed
Creative Thinkingassessed
Critical Thinkingassessed
Integrity and Work Ethicsnot assessed
Self-awareness and Self-reflection not assessed
Self-direction and Self-management not assessed
103-0787-00LProject Parameter EstimationW3 credits3PJ. A. Butt, T. Medic
AbstractSolving engineering problems with modern methods of parameter estimation for network adjustment in a real-world scenario; choosing adequate mathematical models, implementation and assessment of the solutions.
ObjectiveLearn to solve engineering problems with modern methods of parameter estimation in a real-world scenario.
ContentAnalysis of given problems, selection of appropriate mathematical modells, implementation and testing using Matlab: Kriging; system calibration of a terrestrial laser scanner.
Lecture notesThe task assignments and selected documentation will be provided as PDF.
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisite: Statistics and Probability Theory, Geoprocessing and Parameterestimation, Geodetic Reference Systems and Networks
102-0617-00LBasics and Principles of Radar Remote Sensing for Environmental ApplicationsW3 credits2GI. Hajnsek
AbstractThe course will provide the basics and principles of Radar Remote Sensing (specifically Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)) and its imaging techniques for the use of environmental parameter estimation.
ObjectiveThe course should provide an understanding of SAR techniques and the use of the imaging tools for bio/geophysical parameter estimation. At the end of the course the student has the understanding of
1. SAR basics and principles,
2. SAR polarimetry,
3. SAR interferometry and
4. environmental parameter estimation from multi-parametric SAR data
ContentThe course is giving an introduction into SAR techniques, the interpretation of SAR imaging responses and the use of SAR for different environmental applications. The outline of the course is the following:
1. Introduction into SAR basics and principles
2. Introduction into electromagnetic wave theory
3. Introduction into scattering theory and decomposition techniques
4. Introduction into SAR interferometry
5. Introduction into polarimetric SAR interferometry
6. Introduction into bio/geophysical parameter estimation (classification/segmentation, soil moisture estimation, earth quake and volcano monitoring, forest height inversion, wood biomass estimation etc.)
Lecture notesHandouts for each topic will be provided
LiteratureFirst readings for the course:
Woodhouse, I. H., Introduction into Microwave Remote Sensing, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2006.
Lee, J.-S., Pottier, E., Polarimetric Radar Imaging: From Basics to Applications, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2009.
Complete literature listing will be provided during the course.
103-0687-00LCadastral Systems Information W2 credits2GD. M. Steudler
AbstractNature, role and importance of cadastral systems and related concepts such as land administration, land registration and spatial data infrastructures (SDIs).
ObjectiveThe students will get an understanding of the nature, role and importance of cadastral systems and related concepts such as land administration, land registration and spatial data infrastructures (SDIs). The Swiss cadastral system as well as a range of international approaches both in developed and developing countries will be reviewed.
ContentOrigins and purposes of cadastral systems
Importance of documentation
Basic concepts of cadastral systems (real estate, legal basis, conceptual
principles, property-ownership, property types)
Swiss cadastral system:
- legal basis
- organization
- technical elements
- methods of data acquisition and maintenance
- profession
- quality assurance
Digital revolution, access to data
Benchmarking and evaluation of cadastral systems
International trends, developments and initiatives
Lecture notessee: http://www.geo21.ch/ethz/
LiteratureLarsson, G. (1991). Land Registration and Cadastral Systems: Tools for Land
Information and Management. Harlow, Essex, England: Longman Scientific and
Technical, New York: Wiley, ISBN 0-582-08952-2, 175 p.

see also: http://www.geo21.ch/ethz/
851-0724-01LReal Estate Property Law
Particularly suitable for students of D-ARCH, D-BAUG, D-USYS
W3 credits3VM. Huser, R. Müller-Wyss, S. Stucki
AbstractFundamental concepts of Land Register Law and Land Surveying Law (substantive and procedural rules of Land Register Law, the parts and the relevance of the Land Register, process of registration with the Land Register, legal problems of land surveying, reform of the official land surveying).
ObjectiveOverview of the legal norms of land registry and surveying law.
ContentBasic principles of material and formal land registry law, components of the land register, consequences of the land register, the registration process, legal problems of surveying, the reform of official surveying, liability of the geom-eter.
Lecture notesAbgegebene Unterlagen: Skript in digitaler Form

Pflichtlektüre: Meinrad Huser, Schweizerisches Vermessungsrecht, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Geoinformationsrechts und des Grundbuchrechts, Beiträge aus dem Institut für schweizerisches und internationales Baurecht der Universität Freiburg/Schweiz, Zürich 2014
Literature- Meinrad Huser, Schweizerisches Vermessungsrecht, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Geoinformationsrecht und des Grundbuchrechts, Zürich 2014
- Meinrad Huser, Geo-Informationsrecht, Rechtlicher Rahmen für Geographische Informationssyteme, Zürich 2005
- Meinrad Huser, Darstellung von Grenzen zur Sicherung dinglicher Rechte, in ZBGR 2013, 238 ff.
- Meinrad Huser, Baubeschränkungen und Grundbuch, in BR/DC 4/2016, 197 ff.
- Meinrad Huser, Publikation von Eigentumsbeschränkungen - neue Regeln, in Baurecht 4/2010, S. 169
- Meinrad Huser, Der Aufteilungsplan im Stockwerkeigentum: Neue Darstellung – grössere Rechtsverbindlichkeit, in ZBGR 2020, S. 203 ff.
- Meinrad Huser, Datenschutz bei Geodaten, in: Passadelis/Rosenthal/Thür, Datenschutzrecht, Basel 2015, S. 513 ff.
Taught competenciesTaught competencies
Subject-specific CompetenciesConcepts and Theoriesassessed
Techniques and Technologiesassessed
Method-specific CompetenciesAnalytical Competenciesassessed
Decision-makingassessed
Media and Digital Technologiesnot assessed
Problem-solvingassessed
Project Managementnot assessed
Social CompetenciesCommunicationnot assessed
Cooperation and Teamworkassessed
Customer Orientationassessed
Leadership and Responsibilitynot assessed
Self-presentation and Social Influence not assessed
Sensitivity to Diversityassessed
Negotiationassessed
Personal CompetenciesAdaptability and Flexibilitynot assessed
Creative Thinkingassessed
Critical Thinkingassessed
Integrity and Work Ethicsassessed
Self-awareness and Self-reflection assessed
Self-direction and Self-management not assessed
Major in GIS and Cartography
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
103-0227-00LCartography III Information O5 credits4GL. Hurni
AbstractThis follow-up course proceeds to a complete Web map project and introduces in 3D and animated cartography.
ObjectiveThis course enables students to plan, design and realize interactive Web map projects. The introduction to 3D and animated cartography also provides a general knowledge about animated 3D graphics.
Content- Web mapping.
- Data processing.
- Interaction design.
- Graphical user interface.
- 3D cartography.
- Animated cartography.
- Video production.
Lecture notesHandouts of the lectures and exercise documents are available on Moodle.
Prerequisites / NoticeFurther information at http://www.karto.ethz.ch/studium/lehrangebot.html
103-0237-00LGIS IIIO5 credits3GW. Kuhn
AbstractThe course deals with advanced topics in GIS, such as Business aspects and Legal issues; Geostatistics; Human-Computer Interaction; Cognitive Issues in GIS; Geosensors; Spatial Data Mining and Machine Learning for GIS.
ObjectiveStudents will get a detailed overview of advanced GIS topics. They will work on a small project with geosensors in the lab and perform practical tasks relating to Geostatistics and Machine Learning.
Lecture notesLecture slides will be made available in digital form.
103-0747-00LCartography Lab Information W6 credits13AL. Hurni
AbstractIndependent practical work in cartography
ObjectiveIndependent practical work in cartography
ContentChoice of theme upon individual agreement
Prerequisites / NoticeCartography III
Multimedia Cartography
Further information at http://www.karto.ethz.ch/studium/lehrangebot.html
103-0687-00LCadastral Systems Information W2 credits2GD. M. Steudler
AbstractNature, role and importance of cadastral systems and related concepts such as land administration, land registration and spatial data infrastructures (SDIs).
ObjectiveThe students will get an understanding of the nature, role and importance of cadastral systems and related concepts such as land administration, land registration and spatial data infrastructures (SDIs). The Swiss cadastral system as well as a range of international approaches both in developed and developing countries will be reviewed.
ContentOrigins and purposes of cadastral systems
Importance of documentation
Basic concepts of cadastral systems (real estate, legal basis, conceptual
principles, property-ownership, property types)
Swiss cadastral system:
- legal basis
- organization
- technical elements
- methods of data acquisition and maintenance
- profession
- quality assurance
Digital revolution, access to data
Benchmarking and evaluation of cadastral systems
International trends, developments and initiatives
Lecture notessee: http://www.geo21.ch/ethz/
LiteratureLarsson, G. (1991). Land Registration and Cadastral Systems: Tools for Land
Information and Management. Harlow, Essex, England: Longman Scientific and
Technical, New York: Wiley, ISBN 0-582-08952-2, 175 p.

see also: http://www.geo21.ch/ethz/
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