Search result: Catalogue data in Autumn Semester 2016

Environmental Sciences Master Information
Major in Atmosphere and Climate
Colloquia and Seminars
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
651-4095-02LColloquium Atmosphere and Climate 2 Restricted registration - show details O1 credit1KH. Joos, C. Schär, D. N. Bresch, N. Gruber, R. Knutti, U. Lohmann, T. Peter, S. I. Seneviratne, H. Wernli, M. Wild
AbstractThe colloquium is a series of scientific talks by prominent invited speakers assembling interested students and researchers from around Zürich. Students take part of the scientific discussions.
ObjectiveThe students are exposed to different atmospheric science topics and learn how to take part in scientific discussions.
651-4095-03LColloquium Atmosphere and Climate 3 Restricted registration - show details O1 credit1KH. Joos, C. Schär, D. N. Bresch, N. Gruber, R. Knutti, U. Lohmann, T. Peter, S. I. Seneviratne, H. Wernli, M. Wild
AbstractThe colloquium is a series of scientific talks by prominent invited speakers assembling interested students and researchers from around Zürich. Students take part of the scientific discussions.
ObjectiveThe students are exposed to different atmospheric science topics and learn how to take part in scientific discussions.
Electives
Climate Processes and Feedbacks
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
701-1221-00LDynamics of Large-Scale Atmospheric Flow Information W4 credits2V + 1UH. Wernli, S. Pfahl
AbstractDynamic, synoptic Meteorology
ObjectiveUnderstanding the dynamics of large-scale atmospheric flow
ContentDynamical Meteorology is concerned with the dynamical processes of the
earth's atmosphere. The fundamental equations of motion in the atmosphere will be discussed along with the dynamics and interactions of synoptic system - i.e. the low and high pressure systems that determine our weather. The motion of such systems can be understood in terms of quasi-geostrophic theory. The lecture course provides a derivation of the mathematical basis along with some interpretations and applications of the concept.
Lecture notesDynamics of large-scale atmospheric flow
Literature- Holton J.R., An introduction to Dynamic Meteorogy. Academic Press, fourth edition 2004,
- Pichler H., Dynamik der Atmosphäre, Bibliographisches Institut, 456 pp. 1997
Prerequisites / NoticePhysics I, II, Environmental Fluid Dynamics
651-4057-00LClimate History and PalaeoclimatologyW3 credits2GS. Bernasconi, B. Ausin Gonzalez, A. Fernandez Bremer, A. Gilli
AbstractThe course "Climate history and paleoclimatology gives an overview on climate through geological time and it provides insight into methods and tools used in paleoclimate research.
ObjectiveThe student will have an understanding of evolution of climate and its major forcing factors -orbital, atmosphere chemistry, tectonics- through geological time. He or she will understand interaction between life and climate and he or she will be familiar with the use of most common geochemical climate "proxies", he or she will be able to evaluate quality of marine and terrestrial sedimentary paleoclimate archives. The student will be able to estimate rates of changes in climate history and to recognize feedbacks between the biosphere and climate.
ContentClimate system and earth history - climate forcing factors and feedback mechanisms of the geosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere.

Geological time, stratigraphy, geological archives, climate archives, paleoclimate proxies

Climate through geological time: "lessons from the past"

Cretaceous greenhouse climate

The Late Paleocene Thermal Maximum (PETM)

Cenozoic Cooling

Onset and Intensification of Southern Hemisphere Glaciation

Onset and Intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation

Pliocene warmth

Glacial and Interglacials

Millennial-scale climate variability during glaciations

The last deglaciation(s)

The Younger Dryas

Holocene climate - climate and societies
Atmospheric Composition and Cycles
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
701-1235-00LCloud Microphysics Information Restricted registration - show details
Number of participants limited to 16.
W4 credits2V + 1UU. Lohmann, Z. A. Kanji
AbstractClouds are a fascinating atmospheric phenomenon central to the hydrological cycle and the Earth`s climate. Interactions between cloud particles can result in precipitation, glaciation or evaporation of the cloud depending on its microstructure and microphysical processes.
ObjectiveThe learning objective of this course is that students understand the formation of clouds and precipitation and can apply learned principles to interpret atmospheric observations of clouds and precipitation.
Contentsee: http://www.iac.ethz.ch/edu/courses/master/modules/cloud-microphysics.html
Lecture notesThis course will be designed as a reading course in 1-2 small groups of 8 students maximum. It will be based on the textbook below. The students are expected to read chapters of this textbook prior to the class so that open issues, fascinating and/or difficult aspects can be discussed in depth.
LiteraturePao K. Wang: Physics and dynamics of clouds and precipitation, Cambridge University Press, 2012
Prerequisites / NoticeTarget group: Master students in Atmosphere and Climate
102-0635-01LAir Pollution ControlW6 credits4GB. Buchmann, P. Hofer
AbstractThe lecture provides in the first part an introduction to the formation of air pollutants by technical processes, the emission of these chemicals into the atmosphere and their im-pact on air quality. The second part covers different strategies and techniques for emis-sion reduction. The basic knowledge is deepened by the discussion of specific air pollution problems of today's society.
ObjectiveThe students gain general knowledge of the factors resulting in air pollution and the techniques used for air pollution control. The students can identify major air pollution sources and understand the methods for measurement, data collection and analysis. The students can evaluate possible control methods and equipment, design a control system and estimate the efficiency and cost.
The students know the different techniques of air pollution control and their scientific basements. They are able to incorporate goals concerning the air quality into their engineering work.
ContentPart 1 Emission, Immission, Transmission
Fluxes of pollutants and their environmental impact
- physical and chemical processes leading to emission of pollutants
- mass and energy of processes
- Emission measurement techniques and concepts
- quantification of emissions from individual and aggregated sources
- extent and development of the emissions (Switzerland and global)
- propagation and transport of pollutants (transmission)
- meteorological parameters influencing air pollution dispersion
- deterministic and stochastic models, describing the air pollution dispersion
- dispersion models (Gaussian model, box model, receptor model)
- measurement concepts for ambient air (immission level)
- extent and development of ambient air mixing ratios
- goal and instrument of air pollution control

Part 2 Air Pollution Control Technologies
-The reduction of the formation of pollutants is done by modifying the processes (pro-cess-integrated measures) and by different engineering operations for the cleaning of waste gas (downstream pollution control). It will be demonstrated, that the variety of these procedures can be traced back on the application of a few basic principles of physical chemistry.
- Procedures for the removal of particles (inertial separator, filtration, electrostatic pre-cipitators, scrubbers) with their different mechanisms (field forces, impaction and diffu-sion processes) and the modelling of these mechanisms.
- Procedures for the removal of gaseous pollutants and the description of the driving forces involved, as well as the equilibrium and the kinetics of the relevant processes (absorption, adsorption as well as thermal, catalytic and biological conversions).
- Discussion of the technical possibilities to solve the actual air pollution problems.
Lecture notes- Brigitte Buchmann, Air pollution control, Part I
- Peter Hofer, Air pollution control, Part II
- Lecture slides and exercises
LiteratureList of literature included in scrip
Prerequisites / NoticeCollege lectures on basic physics, chemistry and mathematics
651-4053-05LBoundary Layer MeteorologyW4 credits3GM. Rotach, P. Calanca
AbstractThe Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) constitutes the interface between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. Theory on transport processes in the PBL and their dynamics is provided. This course treats theoretical background and idealized concepts. These are contrasted to real world applications and current research issues.
ObjectiveOverall goals of this course are given below. Focus is on the theoretical background and idealised concepts.
Students have basic knowledge on atmospheric turbulence and theoretical as well as practical approaches to treat Planetary Boundary Layer flows. They are familiar with the relevant processes (turbulent transport, forcing) within, and typical states of the Planetary Boundary Layer. Idealized concepts are known as well as their adaptations under real surface conditions (as for example over complex topography).
Content- Introduction
- Turbulence
- Statistical tratment of turbulence, turbulent transport
- Conservation equations in a turbulent flow
- Closure problem and closure assumptions
- Scaling and similarity theory
- Spectral characteristics
- Concepts for non-ideal boundary layer conditions
Lecture notesavailable (i.e. in English)
Literature- Stull, R.B.: 1988, "An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology", (Kluwer), 666 pp.
- Panofsky, H. A. and Dutton, J.A.: 1984, "Atmospheric Turbulence, Models and Methods for Engineering Applications", (J. Wiley), 397 pp.
- Kaimal JC and Finningan JJ: 1994, Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows, Oxford University Press, 289 pp.
- Wyngaard JC: 2010, Turbulence in the Atmosphere, Cambridge University Press, 393pp.
Prerequisites / NoticeUmwelt-Fluiddynamik (701-0479-00L) (environment fluid dynamics) or equivalent and basic knowledge in atmospheric science
Hydrology and Water Cycle
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
701-0535-00LEnvironmental Soil Physics/Vadose Zone Hydrology Information W3 credits2G + 2UD. Or
AbstractThe course provides theoretical and practical foundations for understanding and characterizing physical and transport properties of soils/ near-surface earth materials, and quantifying hydrological processes and fluxes of mass and energy at multiple scales. Emphasis is given to land-atmosphere interactions, the role of plants on hydrological cycles, and biophysical processes in soils.
ObjectiveStudents are able to
- characterize quantitative knowledge needed to measure and parameterize structural, flow and transport properties of partially-saturated porous media.
- quantify driving forces and resulting fluxes of water, solute, and heat in soils.
- apply modern measurement methods and analytical tools for hydrological data collection
- conduct and interpret a limited number of experimental studies
- explain links between physical processes in the vadose-zone and major societal and environmental challenges
ContentWeeks 1 to 3: Physical Properties of Soils and Other Porous Media – Units and dimensions, definitions and basic mass-volume relationships between the solid, liquid and gaseous phases; soil texture; particle size distributions; surface area; soil structure. Soil colloids and clay behavior

Soil Water Content and its Measurement - Definitions; measurement methods - gravimetric, neutron scattering, gamma attenuation; and time domain reflectometry; soil water storage and water balance.

Weeks 4 to 5: Soil Water Retention and Potential (Hydrostatics) - The energy state of soil water; total water potential and its components; properties of water (molecular, surface tension, and capillary rise); modern aspects of capillarity in porous media; units and calculations and measurement of equilibrium soil water potential components; soil water characteristic curves definitions and measurements; parametric models; hysteresis. Modern aspects of capillarity

Demo-Lab: Laboratory methods for determination of soil water characteristic curve (SWC), sensor pairing

Weeks 6 to 9: Water Flow in Soil - Hydrodynamics:
Part 1 - Laminar flow in tubes (Poiseuille's Law); Darcy's Law, conditions and states of flow; saturated flow; hydraulic conductivity and its measurement.

Lab #1: Measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity in uniform and layered soil columns using the constant head method.

Part 2 - Unsaturated steady state flow; unsaturated hydraulic conductivity models and applications; non-steady flow and Richard’s Eq.; approximate solutions to infiltration (Green-Ampt, Philip); field methods for estimating soil hydraulic properties.
Midterm exam

Lab #2: Measurement of vertical infiltration into dry soil column - Green-Ampt, and Philip's approximations; infiltration rates and wetting front propagation.

Part 3 - Use of Hydrus model for simulation of unsaturated flow


Week 10 to 11: Energy Balance and Land Atmosphere Interactions - Radiation and energy balance; evapotranspiration definitions and estimation; transpiration, plant development and transpirtation coefficients – small and large scale influences on hydrological cycle; surface evaporation.

Week 12 to 13: Solute Transport in Soils – Transport mechanisms of solutes in porous media; breakthrough curves; convection-dispersion eq.; solutions for pulse and step solute application; parameter estimation; salt balance.

Lab #3: Miscible displacement and breakthrough curves for a conservative tracer through a column; data analysis and transport parameter estimation.

Additional topics:

Temperature and Heat Flow in Porous Media - Soil thermal properties; steady state heat flow; nonsteady heat flow; estimation of thermal properties; engineering applications.

Biological Processes in the Vaodse Zone – An overview of below-ground biological activity (plant roots, microbial, etc.); interplay between physical and biological processes. Focus on soil-atmosphere gaseous exchange; and challenges for bio- and phytoremediation.
Lecture notesClassnotes on website: Vadose Zone Hydrology, by Or D., J.M. Wraith, and M. Tuller
(available at the beginning of the semester)
http://www.step.ethz.ch/education/active-courses/vadose-zone-hydrology
LiteratureSupplemental textbook (not mandatory) -Environmental Soil Physics, by: D. Hillel
102-0287-00LFluvial Systems Information W3 credits2GP. Molnar
AbstractThe course presents a view of the processes acting on and shaping the landscape and the fluvial landforms that result. The fluvial system is viewed in terms of the production and transport of sediment on hillslopes, the structure of the river network and channel morphology, fluvial processes in the river, riparian zone and floodplain, and basics of catchment and river management.
ObjectiveThe course has two fundamental aims: (1) it aims to provide environmental engineers with the physical process basis of fluvial system change, using the right language and terminology to describe landforms; and (2) it aims to provide quantitative skills in making simple and more complex predictions of change and the data and models required.
ContentThe course consists of three sections: (1) Introduction to fluvial forms and processes and geomorphic concepts of landscape change, including climatic and human activities acting on the system. (2) The processes of sediment production, upland sheet-rill-gully erosion, basin sediment yield, rainfall-triggered landsliding, sediment budgets, and the modelling of the individual processes involved. (3) Processes in the river, floodplain and riparian zone, including river network topology, channel geometry, aquatic habitat, role of riparian vegetation, including basics of fluvial system management. The main focus of the course is hydrological and the scales of interest are field and catchment scales.
Lecture notesThere is no script.
LiteratureThe course materials consist of a series of 13 lecture presentations and notes to each lecture. The lectures were developed from textbooks, professional papers, and ongoing research activities of the instructor. All material is on the course webpage.
Prerequisites / NoticePrerequisites: Hydrology 1 and Hydrology 2 (or contact instructor).
651-2915-00LSeminar in HydrologyZ0 credits1SP. Burlando, J. W.  Kirchner, S. Löw, D. Or, C. Schär, M. Schirmer, S. I. Seneviratne, M. Stähli, C. H. Stamm, University lecturers
Abstract
Objective
651-4023-00LGroundwaterW4 credits3GM. O. Saar, X.‑Z. Kong
AbstractThe course provides an introduction into quantitative analysis of groundwater flow and solute/heat transport. It is focussed on understanding, formulating, and solving groundwater flow and solute/heat transport problems.
Objectivea) Students understand the basic concepts of groundwater flow and solute/heat transport processes and boundary conditions.

b) Students are able to formulate simple, practical groundwater flow and solute/heat transport problems.

c) Students are able to understand and apply simple analytical and/or numerical solutions to fluid flow and solute/heat transport problems.
Content1. Introduction to groundwater problems. Concepts to quantify properties of aquifers.

2. Flow equation. The generalised Darcy law.

3. The water balance equation.

4. Boundary conditions. Formulation of flow problems.

5. Analytical solutions to flow problems I

6. Analytical solutions to flow problems II

7. Finitie difference solution to flow problems.

8. Numerical solution to flow problems using a code.

9. Case studies for flow problems.

10. Concepts of transport modelling. Mass balance equation for contaminants.

11. Boundary conditons. Formulation of contaminant transport problems in groundwater.

12. Analytical solutions to transport problems I.

13. Analytical solutions to transport problems II

14. Numerical solution to simple transport problems using particle tracking technique.
Lecture notesHandouts of slides.

Script in English is planned.
LiteratureBear J., Hydraulics of Groundwater, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1979

Domenico P.A., and F.W. Schwartz, Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology, J. Wilson & Sons, New York, 1990

Chiang und Kinzelbach, 3-D Groundwater Modeling with PMWIN. Springer, 2001.

Kruseman G.P., de Ridder N.A., Analysis and evaluation of pumping test data. Wageningen International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, 1991.

de Marsily G., Quantitative Hydrogeology, Academic Press, 1986
Additional Elective Courses
NumberTitleTypeECTSHoursLecturers
701-1237-00LSolar Ultraviolet RadiationW1 credit1VJ. Gröbner
AbstractThe lecture will introduce the student to the thematics of solar ultraviolet radiation and its effects on the atmosphere and the biosphere. The lecture will cover the modeling and the measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation. The instruments used for solar radiation measurements will also be introduced.
ObjectiveThe lecture should enable the student to understand the specific problematics related to solar ultraviolet radiation and its interaction with the atmosphere and the biosphere.
Content1) Einführung in die Problematik – Motivation
Begriffe (UV-C, UV-B, UV-A,...)
Einfluss der UV Strahlung auf Biosphäre (Mensch, Tier, Pflanzen)
Positive und schädliche Effekte
Wirkungsspektrum, Konzept, Beispiele
UVIndex

2) Geschichtlicher Rückblick
Rayleigh - Himmelsblau
1907: Dorno, PMOD
1970: Bener, PMOD
1980: Berger, Erythemal sunburn meter
1990- : State of the Art

3) Extraterrestrische UV Strahlung
Spektrum
Energieverteilung
Variabilität (Spektral, zeitlich, relativ zu Totalstrahlung)
Satellitenmessungen, Übersicht

4) Einfluss der Atmosphäre auf die solare UV Strahlung
Atmosphärenaufbau
Beinflussende Parameter (Ozon, Wolken, ...)
Ozon, Stratosphärisches versus troposphärisches
Geschichte: Ozondepletion, Polare Ozonlöcher und Einfluss auf die UV Strahlung
Wolken
Aerosole
Rayleighstreuung
Trends (Ozon, Wolken, Aerosole)
Radiation Amplification Factor (RAF)

5-6) Strahlungstransfer
Strahlungstransfergleichung
Modellierung, DISORT
libRadtran, TUV, FASTRT
Parameter
Sensitivitätsstudien
Vergleiche mit Messungen
3-D Modellierung (MYSTIC)
Beer-Lambert Gesetz

7) Strahlungsmessungen
Instrumente zur Strahlungsmessung
Messgrössen: Irradiance (global, direct, diffus), radiance, aktinischer Fluss
Horizontale und geneigte Flächen
Generelle Problematik: Freiluftmessungen...
Qualitätssicherung

8) Solare UV Strahlungsmessungen
Problematik: Dynamik, Spektrale Variabilität, Alterung
Stabilität
Spezifische Instrumente: Filterradiometer, Spektroradiometer, Dosimetrie
Übersicht Aufbau und Verwendung

9-10) Solare UV Strahlungsmessgeräte
Spektroradiometer, Filterradiometer (Breit und schmalbandig)
Charakterisierung
Kalibriermethoden (Im Labor, im Feld)
Qualitätssicherung, Messkampagnen


11-12) Auswerteverfahren
Atmosphärische Parameter aus Strahlungsmessungen
Ozon, SO2
Albedo (Effektiv versus Lokal)
Aerosol Parameter (AOD, SSA, g, Teilchenverteilungen)
Zusammenspiel Messungen - Modellierung
Aktinische UV-Strahlungsflüsse und Bestimmung von atmosphärischen Photolysefrequenzen

13) UV Klimatologie
Trends
UV Klimatologie durch Messnetze
UV Klimatologie durch Satellitenmessungen am Beispiel von TOMS
Modellierung am Beispiel Meteosat-JRC
UV Rekonstruktionen

14) Aktuelle Forschungen
Internationale Projekte, Stand der Forschung
651-4273-00LNumerical Modelling in Fortran Information W3 credits2VP. Tackley
AbstractThis course gives an introduction to programming in FORTRAN95, and is suitable for students who have only minimal programming experience. The focus will be on Fortran 95, but Fortran 77 will also be covered for those working with already-existing codes. A hands-on approach will be emphasized rather than abstract concepts.
ObjectiveFORTRAN 95 is a modern programming language that is specifically designed for scientific and engineering applications. This course gives an introduction to programming in this language, and is suitable for students who have only minimal programming experience, for example with MATLAB scripts. The focus will be on Fortran 95, but Fortran 77 will also be covered for those working with already-existing codes. A hands-on approach will be emphasized rather than abstract concepts, using example scientific problems relevant to Earth science.
Lecture notesSee http://jupiter.ethz.ch/~pjt/FORTRAN/FortranClass.html
651-4273-01LNumerical Modelling in Fortran (Project)
Prerequisite: 651-4273-00L Numerical Modelling in Fortran
W1 credit1UP. Tackley
AbstractThis course gives an introduction to programming in FORTRAN95, and is suitable for students who have only minimal programming experience. The focus will be on Fortran 95, but Fortran 77 will also be covered for those working with already-existing codes. A hands-on approach will be emphasized rather than abstract concepts.
ObjectiveFORTRAN 95 is a modern programming language that is specifically designed for scientific and engineering applications. This course gives an introduction to programming in this language, and is suitable for students who have only minimal programming experience, for example with MATLAB scripts. The focus will be on Fortran 95, but Fortran 77 will also be covered for those working with already-existing codes. A hands-on approach will be emphasized rather than abstract concepts, using example scientific problems relevant to Earth science.
ContentThe project consists of writing a Fortran program to solve a problem agreed upon between the instructor and student; the topic is often related to (and helps to advance) the student's Masters or PhD research. The project is typically started towards the end of the end of the main Fortran class when the student has acquired sufficient programming skills, and is due by the end of Semesterprüfung week.
Lecture notesSee http://jupiter.ethz.ch/~pjt/FORTRAN/FortranProject.html
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